اهمیت نام تجاری در بازارهای بنگاه به بنگاه: سه خوشه خریدار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23466||2002||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6140 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 31, Issue 6, September 2002, Pages 525–533
With the growth of e-commerce and global competition, business-to-business (B2B) marketers are showing increased interest in the potential of branding, especially at the corporate level. This paper describes branding in the context of B2B markets, and examines its perceived importance to buyers. A review of relevant literature and the development of a conceptual model enables a cluster analysis of data from a survey of industrial buyers. The exploratory analysis examines to whom branding is important, and in what situations. Three clusters of buyers are found: branding receptive, highly tangible, and low interest. The practical implications for managers are explored.
With the growth of e-commerce and global competition, business-to-business (B2B) marketers are asking whether branding, especially corporate branding, can help improve their competitive position in the new economy. Although the power of branding is widely accepted in consumer markets, the nature and importance of branding in business markets is unclear and underresearched. The key question motivating the research is to whom is branding important in B2B markets. The assumption is that branding is important to some, but not all, business customers. As one manager interviewed in the study said, “Branding may not be important to everyone, but as long as it is important to some of our customers, we want to know about it.” Price and tangible attributes of products in highly competitive markets often differ only slightly. To prevent their products from becoming commodities, companies seek to differentiate themselves with service, with the company brand, and with brands at the product level. Organizational buyers have long been known to consider service and other more intangible aspects of the offer, in addition to price and product quality. To Aaker , “Many industrial purchase alternatives tend to be toss-ups. The decisive factor then can turn upon what a brand means to a buyer.” Some industrial buyers may be more receptive to branding than are others. This paper provides an exploratory study of to whom branding is important. The paper begins by examining the marketing literature on branding and organizational buying behavior. Drawing from the literature, a conceptual model of industrial branding is introduced. Interviews with industrial marketers and purchasers, and a survey of industrial buyers, then enable a cluster analysis of firms by the relative importance of branding, service, and product attributes in the purchase decision. The cluster analysis provides an exploratory effort to identify to whom B2B branding is important, and in what situations. Characteristics of firms in the clusters are described. The final sections draw out the practical implications of the findings, discuss the limitations of the exploratory research, and offer ideas for future research into B2B branding.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Branding in consumer markets has long been shown to increase a company's financial performance and long run competitive position. This success has captured the attention of B2B marketers, who wish to tap the potential of their company and their products and brands . However, these efforts require an understanding of what B2B branding is. This exploratory research has provided several insights. Perhaps most importantly, the findings suggest that branding plays a more important role in B2B decision making than has generally been recognized. For most B2B marketers, the company brand will remain the focus of the branding strategy. Yet, the company brand of a diversified corporation is multidimensional and dynamic. Understanding how customers perceive the company brand will be key to future management decisions. Branding is not equally important to all companies, all customers, or in all purchase situations. The analysis identified three clusters of customers. These customers differed in their perception of the importance of branding in the purchase decision. Marketers can benefit by analyzing the branding implications for each customer cluster regarding brand naming, the physical product, pricing, distribution, advertising and promotion, and personal selling. A branding strategy focusing on customers in the low-interest cluster might communicate the potential importance of the purchase decision. Product catalogues and web sites can be made attractive and appealing in an attempt to increase buyer interest in the product and in the purchase decision. Mini case studies or testimonials from customers who in the past did not take the purchase seriously could be shared. Additional resources may not be necessary for further development of the physical product. Instead, it may be worthwhile to dedicate resources to improving the ease of ordering. A coordination of telephone, fax, online ordering systems, and personal selling can enhance ease of ordering. Branding strategies to attract more business from the highly tangible cluster may focus on the many tangible, quantifiable, and objective benefits of the product itself, and of the manufacturer behind the product. Physical product improvements may be important, yet the emphasis needs to be on closely matching the physical features to the benefits to the customer. Communications need to identify ways to more objectively evaluate even the more intangible benefits of the brand, such as reduction of perceived risk and uncertainty, and corporate financial stability. Efforts to attract branding-receptive customers should emphasize the unique nature of each purchase, and the need for objective advice and support from a well-established, highly reputable, and flexible manufacturer. Communications will acknowledge the foundation of a high-quality physical product, and augmented services, but will highlight the emotional and self-expressive benefits of the brand. A combination of a strong company brand and an effort to differentiate an individual brand is likely to be the most worthwhile to these customers. In contrast to consumer markets, in B2B markets, the responsibility for implementing segmentation recommendations generally falls on the sales representative, not the advertising executive . Efforts sometimes fall flat simply because they fail to reflect the salesperson's role in implementing the supplier's marketing strategies, managing customer relationships , and exemplifying the brand. Trust and commitment are key issues in buyer–seller relationships . Differences may exist between a customer's trust and perception of a salesperson and of the company . Changes in channel management due to e-commerce and other technological innovations further emphasize the importance of the evolving nature of trust and commitment in business relationships. The model of B2B branding highlights the importance of the buyer's perspective. To a buyer faced with an unfamiliar or newly important purchase, the company brand can signal or symbolize expected brand performance. Buyers often first turn to the leading brand, but there is more to a successful brand than market share. If a leading brand does not correspond to a buyer's priorities, it does not provide good value. Intangible factors do matter, even in rational and systematic decision making. Yet, purchasing managers are likely to continue to look for more objective measures of the most subjective or intangible aspects of the brand. Purchasing and technical managers may be at odds over their choice of supplier. To tap the potential of B2B brands, business marketers must understand and effectively communicate the value of their brands. Marketers should help buyers to realize and quantify the added value offered by a brand. As Court et al. (, p. 26) observed, “Relatively few companies establish true power brands … yet many companies manage to create substantial shareholder value by prudent investment in brand building.” Some B2B brands have also become known to end users, including: Kevlar and Teflon (Dupont), Pentium and Celeron (Intel), Styrofoam (Dow), SurgePro (GE), and Thinsulate (3M) among many others. B2B branding can pay off in terms of sustainable differentiation and increased customer loyalty.