استراتژی های بازاریابی مستقیم: ظهور جامعه حمایت از برنامه های شیلات
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23578||2011||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4546 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Marine Policy, Volume 35, Issue 4, July 2011, Pages 542–548
Community Supported Fishery (CSF) Programs are arrangements between fishermen and consumers where consumers provide upfront payments to fishermen in exchange for scheduled seafood deliveries. They are modeled after the popular Community Supported Agriculture Programs, a form of direct-to-consumer-marketing in which a group of individuals support a farm. There are multiple market and non-market benefits from these programs. Fishermen receive higher prices for fish, are guaranteed a stable income, and can activate political and regulatory support through direct interaction with consumers. Consumers are provided with access to high-quality novel types of fish and benefit from interactions with the producers of their food. CSFs have frequently collaborated with non-governmental organizations to address the challenges associated with these programs. Under the catch share system in the Northeast US groundfish fishery, sectors may be well-positioned to implement a CSF. Direct marketing through a CSF is not likely to completely replace traditional markets for fishermen, but can be a valuable supplement to their operations.
Community Supported Fisheries (CSFs) are a relatively new and innovative program modeled after Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) Programs. CSFs are a form of direct marketing in which consumers provide upfront payments to fishermen in exchange for scheduled seafood deliveries. As of October 2010, there were thirteen CSFs in existence: 10 in the Northeast United States, two CSFs in North Carolina, and one CSF in Nova Scotia, as listed in Table 1. This research chronicles the growth and experiences of CSF programs in the US based on interviews with CSF fishermen and coordinators. The main goals of the CSF model are to increase profits for the local fishermen, provide high-quality seafood to interested consumers, and directly engage consumers using fishery products. This research describes CSAs and their similarities with CSF programs, examines the advantages and challenges facing CSFs, and identifies the implications of CSFs for US fisheries policy and management. This research responds to growing public interest in local and sustainable food, particularly seafood  and . In-person or phone interviews were conducted with representatives from seven CSFs on the US East Coast (Table 1). The interviews examined CSF program details, advantages, and challenges. CSFs share many operational similarities; however, their seafood products vary based on location, catch, season, regulations, and product type (whole versus fillet) offered to consumers. Some CSFs offer shareholders a ‘basket’ of variable seafood products while others specialize in specific species such as Northern shrimp or American lobster. In the Northeast, the products sold through CSFs include groundfish (which may include species such as American plaice, witch flounder, haddock, pollock, cod, redfish, and hake), monkfish, crab meat, squid, and cooked lobster. The North Carolina CSFs sell shellfish (blue crab, oysters, and clams) and also provide many finfish, such as black sea bass, kingfish, mackerels, groupers, snappers, and dolphinfish. 1.1. Fishery management regulations Sea scallops and American lobster are the most valuable fisheries in the Northeast United States; however, the groundfish fishery has particular historical significance. It played a major role in the development of commerce, trade, and society in New England. In 2009, landings of cod, haddock, and yellowtail flounder were worth $25, $14, and $5 million, respectively. The 19 stocks of groundfish are jointly managed under the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan because they are often harvested together: fishermen have imperfect control over the composition of their catch ,  and . As of 2007, 11 of the 19 groundfish stocks were classified as overfished and experiencing overfishing . The Northeast groundfish fishery has undergone many changes throughout the history of fisheries management, particularly in terms of regulations and catch profitability. Prior to May 1, 2010, the primary management tool was an input control, Days-at-Sea (DAS) under which fishermen were allocated a maximum number of fishing days. In addition, rolling area closures, gear restrictions, and trip limits were used to manage catch in this fishery. A catch share management system was implemented to replace Days-at-Sea management in the groundfish fishery. Seventeen self-organized sectors were created and allocated a transferable group quota; vessels not affiliated with a sector are managed under DAS coupled with a strict limit on total catch. The Northern shrimp fishery is managed by a mix of input and output controls, including size limits, trip limits, and Total Allowable Catch. Currently, the shrimp stock is healthy, with no evidence of overfishing, allowing a 180-day winter season . The vast majority (over 80%) of Northern Shrimp is landed in Maine. Processing shrimp is very capital intensive and there are few market outlets for Northern shrimp. All processing facilities for this species are located in Maine, limiting the marketability of shrimp caught in other states.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Community Supported Fishery Programs are a new, innovative form of direct marketing in which consumers provide upfront payments to fishermen in exchange for weekly seafood deliveries during a season. These programs, modeled after Community Supported Agriculture, provide benefits for fishermen, consumers, and the local community. Fishermen benefit from these programs in multiple ways: a CSF can be utilized to receive premium and stable prices, capture profits from a larger portion of the supply chain, build support for fishing in the community, and provide an outlet for low-priced species. Consumers benefit from access to diverse, local, and sustainable seafood, and from having an open dialog with the producers of their food. CSFs benefit communities by providing an outlet for local seafood products. “Local” fishermen are also more likely to reinvest profits into their community and employ local workers. Fishermen in a CSF can use pricing power as a means to earn higher profits from a fixed allocation of fish under a catch share system. Monitoring programs developed for catch share management can be leveraged to increase traceability, a feature valued by consumers. In the long-run, the programs' non-market benefits may prove to be the most important. Strong ties between fishermen, partner organizations, and consumers will both activate and ensure future support for fishing and local fishermen. At the very minimum, CSFs have elevated the visibility of fishermen in local communities. The future of CSFs is uncertain. At this time, fishermen cannot completely replace traditional markets with CSF programs, but direct marketing strategies can be a valuable component of their operations.