هم ظرفیتی و پیوند یونی در روابط تجارت بنگاه به بنگاه : از منظر شیمی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23597||2005||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4945 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 34, Issue 5, July 2005, Pages 440–446
The paper examines business-to-business (B2B) relationships using the framework of the covalence–ionic bonding theory in chemistry as an analogy to help make soft phenomena and relationships in B2B marketing more understandable to engineers and scientists in organizations and to managers with scientific and technical backgrounds. In the tradition of cross-fertilization of various scientific fields, the authors propose that the covalence–ionic bonding theory may provide insights in determining the factors that contribute to the emergence of bilateral, unilateral, and market relationships. This study compares and contrasts interparticle bonding with ways of managing B2B relationships. Beyond sheer analogy of the two phenomena, an explanation of B2B relationships and decision-making mechanisms is proposed. In adapting this concept theoretically, the meaning of the original parameters in physical science is assigned a new meaning in the marketing context. Furthermore, the paper extends conceptually the predictive capabilities of chemistry theories to relational behaviors in marketing. Drawing from a resource-based view of the firm, complementarity of resources and dependence levels are postulated to have critical roles in business bonding. Appropriate propositions are advanced, along with implications for managers and researchers.
There is spirited and continuous exchange regarding the scientific nature of marketing. The opponents of marketing as a science argue that marketers fail to define the exact nature of the phenomenon under study. This resulted in failed attempts at generating a unified general theory of marketing (Hunt, 1991). In the absence of such a theory, marketing studies lack a comprehensive, focused, and impactful body of knowledge useful in advancing the underpinnings of the discipline. Adding to this challenge is the fact that many business-to-business (B2B) marketers have engineering and scientific backgrounds. Thus, this group is predisposed to view marketing theories and frameworks as somewhat “fuzzy” or “soft” when compared with their native disciplines in the physical sciences. Engineers, scientists, and others with scientific and technical orientations require more formalized and structured approaches to marketing problem solving. While the current paper does not contribute to the debate regarding the scientific nature of marketing or toward a general theory of marketing, it offers a potentially significant analogy between the formation of interorganizational and atomic bonds for both analysis and discussion. A fundamental goal of this research is to make some strides toward bridging the chasm between natural and social sciences in the best tradition of cross-fertilization of academic disciplines (Hunt, 1991). Although prior marketing studies provide an excellent conceptual backdrop from which to view the nature, outcomes, and even the dissolution of B2B relationships, a variety of issues remain unresolved (Frazier, 1999). A clear example of this is the paucity of research investigating the factors leading to different forms of relationship management, including hybrid variations to managing relationships. The current research builds upon the extant research on interorganizational relationships (Heide, 1994 and Jap, 2001), contributions from the resource-based view of the firm (Wernerfelt, 1995), and inorganic chemistry research Douglas, McDaniel, & Alexander, 1983), to develop analogies between atomic bonding in chemistry and interorganizational relationships in marketing. At the core, the paper compares three types of chemical bonds between atoms to three types of B2B relationships and illustrates the similarities through detailed analyses of industry examples. Drawing from covalence and ionic bonding theories from inorganic chemistry, this study attempts to uncover the antecedents of interfirm relations and proposes a method that could potentially estimate quantitatively the strength of the relationship.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Insights from the physical sciences offer considerable potential in advancing the understanding between and among the various entities within complex supply chain networks. As business marketers and others grapple for new and innovative conceptual paradigms to strengthen the theory under girding marketing phenomena, bonding theories from chemistry seem promising. The covalence and ionic bonding theories of chemistry indicate that the inherent nature of an atom, such as its electron configuration and electronegativity, can actually determine the type and strength of the bond that the atom forms with another atom or atomic groups. Self-similarity from chaos theory leads us to believe that the structural relationships between subatomic particles and societal entities, such as marketing channel members and firms in business-to-business relationships, may have many things in common that go beyond sheer resemblance. Although the exact nature of the resemblance is not clearly known yet, the authors could nonetheless use the similarity and resemblance qualities to our advantage in predicting a certain characteristic of the interfirm relationships (Hastings & Sugihara, 1993). Similar to the inherent nature of an atom, such as its electron configuration and electronegativity, firms possess certain characteristics that may also have an impact on the type of structural relationship that they have with other firms. In this study, the authors propose that the level of resource complementarities and dependence and the creation and sharing of value generated by the firms are the determining factors that may explain the type of interfirm relationships between channel partners. The electronegativity and structural characteristics concepts from inorganic chemistry serve as an analog to the potential link between inherent firm characteristics and its relationship with other firms. Chemistry theories illustrate that, although coordinate covalence bond, dative covalence bond, and ionic bond differ greatly in their electron structure and many chemical and physical properties, these distinct states and associations between atoms are the result of some gradual changes in the properties of the constituent atoms—their electron configuration and electronegativities. It is from this insight that the authors explore potential variables that are inherent with the focal organizations and the effect that these variables may have in shaping interfirm relationships. Through side-by-side comparison of atomic associations and channel partnerships, it was identified that firms' resources and their complementarity, together with how values were created and shared, shape the type of interfirm relationships observed. Furthermore, the level of resource complementarities and value creation and sharing may also impact the degree of the association, i.e., the strength of the relationships. It would be interesting and quite useful if the nature and strength of interfirm relationship can be predicted, more or less, accurately, from the transaction characteristics of the firms in consideration. The model presented in this paper may serve as a guide to managers in channels of distribution in designing an appropriate structure for the firm in dealing with their suppliers and customers. From the propositions, it becomes possible to predict the type of interfirm relationships through inherent firm characteristics, before such relationship even takes place. This is of great importance to managers in that executive decision making can be facilitated to devise the best approaches and strategies in fostering the most beneficial win–win situation with potential partnering firms. If firms are given the option of choosing the type of the relationship that they desire and the potential strength of the relationship, managers could decide on the amount of resources to be allocated to the relationships and the resulting level of resource complementarities. It has been found that, for different transactions, firms are better off with different types of relationships. For example, Ford Motor may want to enter into a strategic partnership relationship (bilateral or unilateral) with a new tire company after they severed the relationship with Firestone/Bridgestone. On the other hand, a local division of Ford may simply want to enter a market relationship with a local office supply company. For the two types of relationships to form as Ford desired, a knowledge of resource complementarities of the firms involved and the theoretical framework presented in this study may provide guidance for managerial decision making. From an academic perspective, this study is an early attempt to apply laws from physical science and find its use in marketing. Marketing has been borrowing heavily from many other disciplines; this paper is yet another attempt to enrich current marketing knowledge and expand the perspectives of business marketing managers. It has to be acknowledged that how individual firms interact with one another is, of course, not simply analogous to the interactions between particles in the physical world. in addition, there are limitations in applying strict laws from physical science to marketing science. With the proper identification of inherent parameters and clear understanding of internal factors that contribute to interfirm relations, it is possible to make predictions using the laws of physical science, as illustrated in Bass diffusion model.