تجزیه و تحلیل مرحله و مدت زمان روابط بنگاه به بنگاه در آنگولا و چین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23810||2011||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12054 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, April 2011, Pages 346–357
The manuscript reports on a study aimed at analyzing a series of relational variables derived from the Western industrial buyer–seller relationship and Chinese guanxi literature. The findings based on data collected from over 200 Taiwanese trading firms reveal that buyer's perceptions of organizational trust, communication, cooperation, social bonding and the saving of face are higher in Anglo-Chinese relationships that venture beyond the short-term. It is also found that cooperation, social bonding and performance are greater in those b2b relationships surveyed that are relatively more mature than in emerging states. The findings also reveal that relationship duration and stage have a significant moderating effect on various Inter-organizational and Interpersonal–Outcome relationships. Several managerial implications are extracted to help Western firms better manage their international relations, as well as help new exporting firms penetrate such well-established guanxi networks.
Along with the trend of globalisation and rapid economic development in many Far Eastern countries, particularly greater China, business-to-business relationships between Western and Eastern counterparts are receiving heightened interest in both academic and practitioner discourse. However, relationships do not just emerge, but change over time — the ultimate aim being for both parties to develop and maintain healthy, long lasting collaboration that is mutually beneficial and rewarding (Dwyer et al., 1987 and Morgan & Hunt, 1994, July). This is because in highly competitive Chinese markets, the cost of maintaining a reliable partner is much less compared with establishing and cultivating a new relationship, and the rewards associated with having long-term associations are significantly high (Jacobs, 1979, June, Davies et al., 1995, Kipnis, 1997 and Luo, 1997a). Despite growing interest within the buyer–seller domain and Chinese business relationship (guanxi) research, relatively little has been concluded concerning the evolution of relationships in industrial markets, particularly from a Chinese perspective. Whilst in the Western literature, there is a consensus among academics that buyer–seller relationships are seen to progress through discreet stages over time in a unified manner ( Ford, 1980), most of the research tends to be conceptual or based upon inductive exploration, which is somewhat disjointed and lacking coherence in content ( Barnes, 2005). Similarly, although the notion of a long-term orientation has been commonly addressed in the process of building relationships in a Chinese context ( Armstrong & Yee, 2001, Mavondo & Rodrigo, 2001 and Liu et al., 2008), little empirical research has been conducted to explore how such relational and guanxi attributes evolve over time. In addition, and despite a plethora of marketing literature that has focused on examining relationships between industrial buyers and suppliers, very few empirical studies have been undertaken to examine the issues pertaining to Chinese buyers regarding their relationships with Anglo-Saxon suppliers. In this research, Anglo-Saxon refers to supplier firms that originate from countries where English is the native language, such as the UK, USA, Canada, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. These nations speak English, share historical, political and cultural characteristics which provide some rationale for grouping these together and differentiating them from other more heterogeneous Western countries in Europe (Bennett, 2004). Moreover, findings of a quantitative nature that map the evolvement of buyer–seller relations over time are rare (Ford & Rosson, 1982, Rosson, 1986 and Barnes, 2005). In response, this research aims to fill a gap in the literature through the following objectives: • To develop an integrated framework that builds on the buyer–seller literature of an international nature; drawing on the pertinent strands of literature from both Western and Chinese perspectives. • To report the findings of a survey among international agents and distributors, thus obtaining Chinese buyers' views of their working relationship with Western suppliers. • To incorporate the relationship evolutionary process by specifically analyzing the similarities and differences associated with relationship attributes at different length and stages. By fulfilling the stated objectives, the empirical nature of the research findings will provide several implications for academics researching in the area of international buyer–seller relationships. Firstly, by incorporating constructs derived from both Western and Chinese literature, the conceptual framework proposed in this study expands the research field of buyer–seller relationships into a different cultural context — incorporating aspects from different international perspectives (Wilson and Möller, 1991, Ambler & Styles, 2000 and Rodrigez & Wilson, 2002). Secondly, by examining various relationship attributes at different durations and stages, the research investigation will help broaden our understanding and management of such international relations. In addition to the academic implications, the research findings will be useful for Western firms, especially those suppliers who are keen to export into the greater Chinese markets. This is important due to the globalisation of markets, pressures of local trade shortages and the economic downturns currently experienced in many countries. By examining Chinese buyers' attitudes towards relational attributes at different stages and periods of time, the research findings provide useful insights to help Western firms obtain a better understanding of Chinese buyers' relational behavior and discuss employable strategies for Western firms to develop and nurture long-term collaboration with their Chinese partners. It is believed that a lack of understanding associated with Chinese buyers' attitudes and behavior over different relationship stages and time could impact negatively on the long-term sustenance of international business relationships among Western exporters and their respective Chinese agents or distributors. This frequently represents a key problem for small and medium sized enterprises with limited financial and strategic resources, when exporting into the greater Chinese markets. As most Western SMEs tend not to have sufficient knowledge regarding local Chinese markets, and rely heavily on their overseas distributors to succeed in such markets (Seligman, 1999 and Chen, 2001b), the research is particularly significant for SMEs in helping them to develop and maintain sustainable international business relationships with their Chinese agents and distributors. The manuscript is structured as follows: Firstly, a review of the literature builds on the key theory and discusses pertinent research exploring the evolvement and the developmental stages associated with buyer–seller relationships. A conceptual framework is then outlined which builds on both the Western buyer–seller relationship and Chinese guanxi literature. The research approach and methodology are then detailed, followed by the research findings. Finally, several theoretical and practical implic