درک ارتباط بین فرصت طلبی فن آوری، تاکید بازاریابی و عملکرد شرکت: مفاهیم برای B2B
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23814||2011||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 40, Issue 5, July 2011, Pages 785–795
The capability of firms to sense and respond to changes in technologies, called technological opportunism, is of growing importance to managers as a source of competitive advantage. However, exactly how technological opportunism impacts firm performance is still not clearly understood. Furthermore, the role of marketing in this relationship, if any, has yet to be examined. Understanding this relationship is critical for marketing managers not only for determining strategic investments of resources but also for demonstrating marketing return on activities. This paper explores the links between technological opportunism and firm performance. The results show that technological opportunism has a strong positive impact on key measures of performance such as firm sales, profits and market value. Importantly, marketing emphasis is the mechanism through which the technological opportunism–performance relationship is achieved. Finally, the impact of marketing emphasis on B2B firms is different than that for B2C firms, highlighting the importance of these activities for B2B marketing managers.
Thriving, and even surviving, is becoming more difficult for firms in today's increasingly global, fast-paced, and economically treacherous business environment. The pace of change is daunting and many executives feel that their companies are falling further behind (IBM Global CEO Study, 2010). In particular, managers seem to be faced with an increasing number of technology disruptions in their businesses that can threaten competitive advantage (e.g., Benner and Tushman, 2003, Chandy and Tellis, 1998 and Christensen, 1998). This rapid advance of technology can place firms on the defensive, which can create reactionary decision-making that leads to investments that may not be correct for either the short-or long-term. As a result, firms can fall even further behind competitors. How can firms be more proactive with respect to technology? One approach is for firms to become technologically opportunistic. Firms that are technologically opportunistic have a fundamental orientation toward sensing and responding to new technologies (Srinivasan, Lilien, & Rangaswamy, 2002). In this context, technological opportunism is a positive orientation that enables a firm to better compete in its markets. Sensing refers to how a firm develops an understanding of new technologies, keeping in mind that this knowledge is drawn from both inside and outside of the firm ( Srinivasan et al., 2002). Firms that are strong in the sensing capability keep close contact across business functions as well as with external stakeholders. Responding is the firm's willingness and ability to take action in the face of technological change. On many occasions, this involves challenging the prevailing industry view such as Federal Express, Google, TiVO, and Research in Motion, among others, have done ( Wind, 2009). Despite its potential implications for business, little has been done to expand our basic knowledge of technological opportunism and its impact (e.g., Mohr & Shoostari, 2003). One very important unresolved question is whether technological opportunism benefits firm performance (Srinivasan et al., 2002). Opportunism implies that firms are taking advantage of resources, assets, capabilities or relationships, among other things, that provide competitive advantage and thus enhanced performance. Alternatively, the nature of sensing and responding to technological change suggests an inherent degree of risk that may be detrimental to dimensions of performance. For example, firms may have high-cost research and development failures. Firms can also develop products that are too advanced for customer acceptance, which results in disappointing sales and profits (Dhebar, 1996). The Apple Newton, an advanced personal digital assistant concept from the late 1980s (pre-cursor to the Palm Pilot and Blackberry), fits the latter category. This study begins to fill in this gap in understanding of how technological opportunism impacts different dimensions of financial performance such as sales, profits and market value. This finer-grained view of performance helps to provide a more complete picture of its impact on the firm (e.g., Walker & Ruekert, 1987). A second key question is whether certain firm mechanisms are in place through which the relationship between technological opportunism and performance occurs (Srinivasan, 2008). Understanding these mechanisms provides managers with a more detailed picture of how technological opportunism may benefit firm performance. Specifically, this study focuses how a firm's emphasis on marketing mediates the relationship between technological opportunism and firm performance. Marketing is a key link between internal and external stakeholders (Day, 1994, Moorman and Rust, 1999 and Srivastava et al., 1999). This suggests that the success of technological opportunism in delivering enhanced performance is dependent upon marketing's emphasis on its key resources, assets and capabilities with internal and external stakeholders. The value of marketing as an investment rather than an expense item is an ongoing debate (e.g., Day, 1994, Marketing Science Institute, 2008 and Srivastava et al., 1998). Furthermore, the manner in which marketing emphasizes its key resources, assets and capabilities is typically not well understood by managers (Vorhies & Morgan, 2003). Therefore, understanding this relationship is critical not only to the success of technological opportunism but also to marketing's role in the firm. Unfortunately, no academic marketing research has taken on this challenge in the context of technological opportunism. Finally, this study begins to understand differences in the mediating effect of marketing emphasis, if any, for business-to-business (B2B) versus business-to-consumer (B2C) firms. Understanding and integrating advancing technology is critical to B2B firms (Easton & Araujo, 2003). Given the differences in how B2B and B2C firms approach their markets, this investigation is warranted to properly inform marketing managers. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. First, drawing on the resource-based view of the firm, the potential impact of technological opportunism on firm performance is discussed. Specifically, the relationship between technological opportunism and revenue, profits and firm value are explored. It is then argued that marketing emphasis mediates the effects of technological opportunism on these dimensions of performance. These proposed relationships are empirically tested using data from a survey of senior marketing managers in publicly traded U.S. firms coupled with financial performance data drawn from COMPUSTAT. Finally, the implications of the results as well as potential limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study draws on a cross-industry sample of firms to provide insight into whether technological impacts performance. Heretofore, no empirical study has examined this key relationship. Building on the resource-based view of the firm, technological opportunism has an impact on a number of financial performance measures that are of distinct importance to managers across the firm. Perhaps even more important, this study demonstrates that technological opportunism significantly affects performance only when marketing places a strong emphasis on its resources, assets and capabilities. Furthermore, B2B firms appear to benefit more than B2C from a strong marketing emphasis in the technological opportunism–performance relationship, although more research is needed. Managers should take note of how marketing can impact various activities, and in particular technological opportunism, across the firm. Marketing managers should find ways to utilize assets, processes and capabilities to improve the firm's technological opportunities. Future research examining technological opportunism and its key relationships is sorely needed to enhance decision-making.