استفاده، موانع و اندازهگیری بازاریابی از طریق رسانههای اجتماعی: تحقیقی اکتشافی از برندهای کوچک و متوسطB2B
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|23818||2011||7 صفحه PDF||19 صفحه WORD|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 40, Issue 7, October 2011, Pages 1153–1159
برندسازیB2B و اینترنت
شبکهها و رسانههای اجتماعی و SNS
فواید و موانع رسانههای اجتماعی
معیارهای سنجش رسانههای اجتماعی
جدول 1: ویژگی های SMEهایB2B
تجزیه و تحلیل ویافتهها
جدول ۲: مهمترین SNSها
جدول۳: دلایل استفاده از SNS
جدول ۴: معیارهای سنجش کارآمدی SNS در حمایت از برندهایB2B
جدول ۵: موانع استفاده از SNS
افرادی که از SNS استفاده نمیکنند
نمودار ۱: روند جستجو در سایت گوگل براییافتن «رسانههای اجتماعی»
نمودار ۲: روند جستجو در سایت گوگل براییافتن «رسانههای اجتماعی» و B2B
محدودیتها و تحقیقات در آینده
Previous research has established the benefits of branding for business-to-business (B2B) organizations. Various tools can be used to support B2B brands, including the internet and other interactive technologies. Yet research on how organizations use Social Networking Sites (SNS) to achieve brand objectives remains limited. This study addresses the gap by focusing on B2B SMEs and their social networking practices, particularly, usage, perceived barriers, and the measurement of effectiveness of SNS as a marketing tool. Findings from a mail survey show that over a quarter of B2B SMEs in the UK are currently using SNS to achieve brand objectives, the most popular of which is to attract new customers. On the other hand, the most significant barrier is the lack of perceived relevance for particular sectors. Notably, the overwhelming majority of users do not adopt any metrics to assess SNS effectiveness. Almost half of the sample of SMEs that currently use SNS have indicated their intention to increase their marketing spending on this channel, highlighting the growing importance of SNS in a B2B context.
The advent of Web 2.0 has created new ways to communicate, collaborate and share content (Enders, Hungenberg, Denker, & Mauch, 2008). Statistics from NielsenWire (2010) show that in 2009, social media and specifically, social networking sites (SNS) such as such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace and LinkedIn, were a popular online activity in terms of average time spent. Currently, there are more than 150 SNS; in 2009, Facebook was ranked first in terms of popularity, with 206.9 million unique visitors globally (NielsenWire, 2010). Social media, also known as ‘user-generated communication’, now represents a prevalent source of information; it has changed the tools and strategies companies use to communicate, highlighting that information control now lies with the customer (Mangold & Faulds, 2009). A study by Cone (2008) (http://www.coneinc.com/) shows that 93% of social media users believe that companies should have a social media presence, while 85% of them think that companies should interact with customers via SNS. Companies have now penetrated the online social networking scene, offering direct links from their corporate websites to Facebook and Twitter, and use these tools to promote brands and support the creation of brand communities (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Recent statistics show that advertising spending on Facebook and MySpace is expected to reach $605 m and $435 m respectively for 2010, whilst a significant portion of this spending will go towards building and maintaining a social network presence (Williamson, 2009). Despite the popularity of SNS, their importance in shaping commercial online interaction (Mislove, Marcon, Gummadi, Druschel, & Bhattacharjee, 2007) and their potential to support brands (Christodoulides, 2009), research into SNS is very limited, and focuses largely on the consumer in a B2C domain. To date, there is paucity of systematic research on how SNS are used by companies, particularly B2B companies, and how they contribute to brand objectives. Anecdotal evidence (e.g. Shih, 2009) suggests that social media is important for B2B companies. B2B companies can use social media and specifically SNS such as Facebook and LinkedIn to communicate with their customers and suppliers, build relationships and trust, as well as to identify prospective partners in terms of B2B selling (Shih, 2009). It is notable that while B2B e-commerce is valued at more than three and half times that of B2C e-commerce (Kalapesi, Willersdorf, & Zwillenberg, 2010) the interest in, and subsequent adoption of, social media by B2B organizations has been slow compared to their B2C counterparts. This lack of research into SNS in a B2B environment provides the impetus for our study which addresses this gap, and contributes to existing literature in the following ways. First, it examines how B2B SMEs use SNS. Our decision to focus on small and medium sized companies within a B2B context is because they represent the majority of industrial businesses, and are a significant driver of economic growth (LaPlaca, 2011). Second, the study provides insights into the extent of use and the reasons why B2B SMEs use SNS, as well as insights into the perceived barriers that inhibit usage. Third, it examines differences between organizations from different industries in terms of their usage of SNS. Fourth, the study explores the measurement practices used by companies who engage in brand activities on SNS. Despite calls from both industry and academia for new and creative metrics to suit the social media environment (Russell, 2009), very little is known as to the metrics actually used by B2B organizations to assess their branding efforts on SNS. Fifth, it investigates whether there are differences between users and non-users of SNS, based on their organizational innovativeness levels. The paper opens by reviewing the literature on B2B branding and social media. It then discusses the methodology and main findings of a postal survey administered to a sample of B2B SMEs in the UK. The findings are discussed in the light of the previous literature highlighting implications for practitioners and suggestions are made for further research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
There is dearth of literature focusing on how B2B companies use SNS. This study contributes to knowledge by exploring the barriers, usage and perceived benefits of SNS among B2B SMEs in the UK, and reveals some interesting findings. Specifically, the study sheds light on the barriers with regard to the use of SNS which include the perceived irrelevance of SNS within the industry the company operates in, uncertainty as to the use of SNS to support brands, as well as barriers such as staff familiarity and lack of training. The finding highlights the varied managerial mindsets regarding the usage of SNS to support brands across B2B SMEs, irrespective of industry, and this has implications for the adoption of SNS and generally social media by B2B firms. In contrast to other technologies (e.g. e-commerce), SNS do not require a large investment. However, their diffusion among B2B SMEs is ostensibly slow, with the majority of B2B SMEs in the UK being uncertain as to how SNS can be used to support their brands. Additionally, the study shows that over a quarter of B2B SMEs have recognized the importance of SNS in supporting brands (Van Den Bulte & Wuyts, 2007) and are therefore using SNS primarily to attract customers and to cultivate customer relationships. Additional perceived benefits stemming from the use of SNS include increasing awareness and communicating the brand online. This finding has implications for the use of SNS in customer relationship management. Following from evidence highlighting the important role of branding in a B2B setting, B2B firms can use SNS to create customer value in the form of interacting with customers, as well as building and fostering customer relationships. Being closer to their customers will enable them to create a unique brand identity and to differentiate themselves from the competition. Customers can also benefit from the company in that through the use of SNS, they will be able to communicate with the company and provide feedback.