خلاقیت، زیبایی شناسی و دوستی سازگار با محیط زیست : مدل ارزیابی های مصنوعی طراحی محیط فیزیکی ناهار خوری رستوران های خلاق و مبتکر
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|2389||2013||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7200 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 36, June 2013, Pages 15–25
This study attempts to identify the important attributes of Innovative Physical Dining Environment Design (IPDED) through qualitative and quantitative analyses of expert viewpoints. We extend the related literature in restaurant physical environment design and construct a Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) model that combines Decision-Making Trail and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) to demonstrate the interactions and relations among the criteria. The DEMATEL analysis shows that eco-friendless has direct and indirect influences on the dimensions of creativity, aesthetics and performance. Furthermore, performance is the most critical attribute of restaurant operation when the ANP analysis is applied. The results of this study provide an important reference for restaurant managers and interior designers in their decision-making process, thereby reducing risk.
In today's increasingly competitive and dynamic environment, the restaurant industry must provide innovative service to maintain a competitive advantage. Thus, innovations in service and the physical environment designed to increase performance are critical attributes for future restaurant development (Chen, 2011; Jones, 1996; Ottenbacher, 2007). Horng and Hu (2008) and Hu, Horng, and Sun (2009) suggested that a restaurant must provide a unique and novel consumption experience to satisfy customer needs. Kim, Lee, and Yoo (2006) also noted that restaurants can attract customers through novelty in design. Therefore, the invisible atmosphere, dining space design and lighting have attracted attention from restaurant managers. Furthermore, in keeping with recent lifestyle changes, dining outdoors has become an important social behavior; customers need not only a new sense of taste but also a unique dining environment to experience an alternative dining experience (Liu & Jang, 2009). The studies of Addis and Sala (2007), Wall and Berry (2007) and Han and Ryu (2009) found that the restaurant environment influences the customer price point, satisfaction and loyalty. Increasing numbers of customers expect to dine in a high-quality restaurant environment that also provides entertainment. Therefore, restaurant owners are working to create innovative environments to attract customers (Ryu & Han, 2010) and to maintain a competitive advantage through innovative physical environment design that improves restaurant and equipment efficiency (Hassanien & Tom, 2002). This study provided several contributions to the existing literature. First, we integrated the previous literature regarding innovation and creativity and considered the novelty perspective in the context of future restaurant design and operation. Although the function of restaurants is primarily about providing food, because customers want to enhance their quality-of-life and enjoy comfortable dining space, improvements in food quality alone will not necessarily improve customer satisfaction. For example, when visiting upscale restaurants or dining out with family or friends on Sundays, customers would often spend 1 h or more in experiencing the physical environment of the restaurants, including the lighting, decoration, and layout. Therefore, sense of experience and attention to the environment of the restaurants may influence their satisfaction and subsequent decision on revisiting or not. Thus, intangible emotional experience of the physical environment of restaurants has been recognized as an important factor in customer attitude and behavior (Heung & Gu, 2012). Despite the large number of studies addressing how restaurant chefs become creative staff members (Horng & Lee, 2006) and the creative processes in chef development (Horng & Hu, 2008), there is limited empirical research that explores the applications of innovation and creativity concepts in the hospitality industry. Second, this study focused on in-depth interviews with creative restaurant evaluators, space designers, restaurant managers and academic scholars to obtain the opinions of these individuals and record their experiences in an innovative physical dining environment design (IPDED) analysis. Thus, this study provided a compass for restaurant managers to use in making decisions regarding dining atmosphere design and operations. Third, the existing studies have only investigated the dimensions of atmospherics on an individual basis. For instance, Wilson (2003) examined how music constructs the invisible atmosphere of restaurants and influences purchase intentions, and Gueguen and Petr (2006) analyzed the relationship between odors and consumer behavior in a restaurant. However, previously published research investigations have rarely explored the relationships and causality of each dimension of restaurant physical environment design. Therefore, this study used multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) to analyze the structure of the IPDED model and describe the relationships among the dimensions and criteria of restaurant environmental design, thereby helping restaurant managers and designers make decisions that reduce the risks of operational failure. Our research methodology incorporated both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the viewpoints of experts and discuss the relationships among the different dimensions. This study also extends the related literature on physical dining environment design by evaluating the critical attributes of restaurant design: creativity (novelty, centrality, importance, affect, interactivity and resolution), aesthetics (elaboration and synthesis, aesthetics, culture and fashion) and eco-friendliness (resourcefulness and efficiency, green experience and environmental pollution). The study further explores the influence of IPDED on creativity, aesthetics, and eco-friendliness. The MCDM, which integrates the DEMATEL and ANP methods, highlights the importance and prioritizes the dimensions of creativity, aesthetics, and eco-friendliness. Simultaneously, this study discusses the level of influence of creativity, aesthetics and eco-friendless on restaurant performance (e.g., customer satisfaction, overall impression and operation profit) and provides important insights for restaurant physical environment designers and managers. As Horng and Lin (2009) note, comparative tests of creativity in the restaurant industry are rare in the hospitality literature. The research framework is depicted in Fig. 1.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purposes of this study are to describe an IPDED analysis and to utilize an MCDM model to develop our understanding of critical attributes of innovation in restaurant design. Traditional strategic decision-making has seldom accounted for the relationships between the multiple dimensions of design materials. However, in the real world, these criteria are not independent; instead, they interact with other attributes. Therefore, the important contribution of this study is its use of the critical opinions of innovative restaurant managers, restaurant space designers, and scholars to determine both the relationships among the multiple dimensions that it examines and the relative ranking of physical environment design factors for innovative restaurants. This research not only highlights the key success factors of innovative restaurants but also assesses the relationships among these factors. To achieve the research objectives, we used multiple data selection processes, in-depth interviews, questionnaires and various statistical analytical methods to determine the critical attributes and relevant criteria of the IPDED analysis. As Fig. 4 indicates, the dimension of “performance” is the primary factor that is influenced by the other dimensions of eco-friendliness, creativity and aesthetics. This result provides an important implication for future restaurant operations, namely, that to increase restaurant profits, restaurant managers should focus on creating an innovative dining atmosphere to increase customers' satisfaction, loyalty and enjoyment of the dining space. Furthermore, creativity and aesthetics also act as important influencing factors, which indicates that innovation requires creative exploration (Horng, Hu, Hong, & Lin, 2011) and that the aesthetic dimensions influence the value of restaurant physical environment design (Ryu & Han, 2010). Finally, from the perceptive of relationships, eco-friendliness influences aesthetics and performance through creativity. This may reflect the fact that environmental protection has gained increasing attention from both the government and customers. Restaurant managers should pay attention to environmental and lifestyle changes when designing restaurant spaces. Therefore, in the future, restaurant space design should not only consider the representation of creativity and aesthetics but also explore the design factor of eco-friendliness to improve overall performance. Moreover, the findings with regard to the relationships among the sub-dimensions also have several implications for restaurant managers. First, operational profit is affected by overall impression and customer satisfaction, which implies that achieving operational profit requires consideration of overall impression and customer satisfaction. Conversely, when DANP analysis is applied, the criterion of overall impression has a higher score than the others, which suggests that customers' overall impression of a restaurant's physical environment design will determine the overall performance. Thus, future restaurant designs may be better at creating graceful, comfortable, fashionable, aesthetic, eco-friendly environments, and the core principles of space design must be clear and definite. Second, novelty received much attention with regard to the dimensions of creativity and affected the criteria of importance, affect, centrality, interactivity and resolution. It is certainly possible for restaurant managers to promote a creative feeling for space design through novelty, which relates to customer affect. Furthermore, combining centrality, interactivity and other attributes of creativity maintains the best performance. Third, the criterion of beauty is affected by elaboration/synthesis and culture/fashion. In other words, increasing beauty requires a consideration of the elaboration and synthesis of space design, further combining traditional culture and fashion trends. In the final dimension of restaurant physical environment design, eco-friendliness, a green experience received higher scores in the experts' evaluations. Thus, when applying eco-friendliness concepts in restaurant physical environment design, restaurant owners or designers should take into account green landscape design and environmental protection, such as the use of environmentally friendly materials to reduce unnecessary waste, improve the energy service efficiency of the restaurant; every component of environmental protection should be included in the space design to offer a novel green experience for customers. Our findings make several contributions and have implications for service industries. For example, the identification of critical dimensions can provide important directions for restaurant managers and designers for how to effectively create innovative restaurant spaces and design more unique, comfortable and enjoyable dinning places for customers. However, this study has some limitations that suggest a number of future avenues for research. First, although this study has identified several critical dimensions for future restaurant design. However, because innovation and conscious environment conservation have become dynamic and fashionable recently, our sample selections focused on creative restaurant managers or experts who were constrained this area in terms of their background, education or area of expertise. Therefore, in order to increase the generalizability of the findings, further studies are needed to include samples from different industries and different types of restaurants, to collect client's opinions, and to enlarge the samples of experts. Furthermore, given the generalizability of the study findings and the variety of cultural settings of restaurants, the consideration of other cultures with respect to evaluating the innovative designs of restaurants' physical environments may be necessary. Thus, future studies investigating the impact of cross-cultural behavioral research on the multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) model are recommended as well. This study argues that it is important to consider the critical attributes of physical environment design when examining the role of innovation. Using the context of the innovative Taiwanese restaurant industry, the findings show that considering the innovative dimensions of restaurant design, such as creativity, aesthetics and eco-friendliness, can help to explain restaurant performance. Notably, combining the DEMATEL and ANP analyses, which demonstrated the importance and ranking of each dimension, will help decision makers to improve decision quality and to prioritize standards when considering the design of a restaurant's physical environment.