شهرهای آفریقایی و تجارت منطقه ای در چشم انداز تاریخی: مفاهیمی برای روند معاصر جهانی شدن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23962||2006||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9321 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Cities, Volume 23, Issue 1, February 2006, Pages 18–29
This paper has three objectives. First, to identify pre-colonial African towns of regional and international significance and to highlight their role as centers of long distance trade, art and craft; second, to identify and discuss the major factors that contributed to weakening the position of these towns in the global socio-economic arena; and third, to suggest steps that can be taken to transform African towns in particular, and the continent in general, into active participants in contemporary globalization processes. The suggested actions entail investing in, and promoting the use of, modern information technologies; improving conventional mailing systems; improving road and other transport facilities; and requiring MNCs to contribute meaningfully to development efforts in their host locales and host countries.
Studies of the role of African cities in regional trade and globalization suffer from a number of major deficiencies. Prominent amongst these is their lack of historical grounding. This notwithstanding, the studies are unified in observing that most major indigenous cities in Africa were major centers of regional and international socio-economic activities prior to the European colonial era (see e.g., Schneider, 2003, Sassen, 2002, Jenkins et al., 2002, Beall, 2002 and Coquery-Vidrovitch, 1991). The view that these cities currently play an insignificant or passive role in the global economy also attracts consensus (Schneider, 2003, p. 389). Thus, the role of African cities in the international arena has waned, rather than increased, over the years. Why is this the case? What steps are necessary to transform African cities into the active participants in regional and international socio-economic affairs that they once were? Stated alternatively: what can be done to make African cities active players in the contemporary globalization process?
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Although today’s globalization train has left the station without Africa on board, Africa is not entirely a stranger to international socio-economic, political and cultural interaction. The continent’s experience with such interaction dates back to the pre-colonial era, when a good number of African towns served as nodes for international commerce, artisan craft and informal industrial activities. These towns also served as the points of origin and destination of regional and international traders. In this paper, we have marshaled evidence to substantiate this assertion. Africa’s position in the international economic arena was significantly diminished by two major events in the continent’s history. The first was European colonization and the second was sheer neglect of the transportation infrastructure by post-colonial authorities. These authorities have further failed to invest in the modern technology necessary to make Africa a viable participant in the contemporary globalization process. Instead, the continent has become a passive participant, serving hardly more than a producer of raw materials and a major consumer of finished products from industrialized countries.