ارزیابی GIS مشارکت عمومی و فن آوری های وب 2.0 در شیوه برنامه ریزی شهری در Canela، برزیل
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|240||2010||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6700 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Cities, Volume 27, Issue 3, June 2010, Pages 172–181
Recent advances in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Web 2.0 technologies provide new ways of creating sophisticated Web applications that strengthen social interactions based on comments on online maps, which have the potential to improve Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) practices. In this paper, we address this promising approach to analyze the impact of collaborative Web 2.0 tools applied to PPGIS applications in urban planning actions. We develop a Web 2.0 PPGIS application through free, easy-to-use tools, which consist of a Web mapping service, with eligible geospatial data layers, where users explore and comment. A database stores the contributions in a format supported by GIS. We also set up a prototype version in Canela (Brazil), to test its usability. The results showed that it is a valuable approach for engaging the public. It could promote communication among users and decision makers in a more interactive and straightforward way. Besides, it is easy to set up and understandable by non-experts. The Web 2.0 PPGIS may serve as a social tool for any spatially-related issue involving community members in any context.
Urban planning handles problems of the built, natural, and social environments, where a wide range of features have to be balanced against each other to reach solutions (Webber and Rittel, 1973). Undoubtedly, key players in urban planning are the inhabitants, who know the reality and the problems around them better than anyone else. Citizens’ knowledge provides a rich source of updated information that helps to improve the quality of the analysis, leading to different solutions than when using traditional forms of data. Nevertheless, involving members of society in planning decisions affecting their lives is a recent trend, principally influenced by legislation. For instance, the United Nations Local Agenda 211 program enshrines the practice in its principles; and the Aarhus Convention2 established that sustainable development can only be achieved by involving stakeholders. However, public participation for urban planning decisions is not a straightforward process. It deals with problems that co-evolve, with an infinite number of solutions (Webber and Rittel, 1973 and Tang et al., 2005). Besides, the complexity and interdisciplinary characteristics of all studies needed to produce an urban analysis demand up-to-date tools and methods to represent space and its inherent relations. As most urban studies data are found in map forms, visualization capacity, employing mapping services, found in Web 2.0 tools, and the capacity to model multiple outcomes of GIS, are critical (Elwood, 2006). As a result of the use of GIS capabilities by the public, the term Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) has emerged (Nyerges et al., 1997). Rather than using these in a traditional way, as for spatial analysis, geospatial capabilities are used for production of maps and spatial stories that help to characterize the local space (Elwood, 2006). Since traditional participation methods received some criticism, based on the limited ability to sufficiently engage the public, to provide useful data, and to promote an exchange of ideas (Forrester et al., 1999 and van den Brink et al., 2007), PPGIS can be perceived as a technological evolution enabling more interactive methods. PPGIS projects are though still limited in their ability to communicate, organize, and reflect user participation (Carver, 2001). According to Steinmann et al. (2004), although up-to-date research efforts are concentrating in new technologies around the Web (Rinner et al., 2008 and Sidlar and Rinner, 2009), the reality is that exchange platforms are exceptions. Also, Hanzl (2007) states that most of the examples described in the literature are still experimental: they corroborate available technical possibilities but do not apply to real participatory planning actions. Recent changes in how people are using new information technologies for their own interest (Castells, 2001) are reflected in an increasing volume of user-generated geospatial content, available for everyone (Goodchild, 2007, Hudson-Smith and Crooks, 2008 and Turner, 2006). This poses new challenges in PPGIS applications. Centralized, top-down approaches dominated by institutions, politicians, and technicians are not suitable anymore. New perspectives are thus required that enable a bottom-up decision making strategy, building on effective participation and communication among experts and non-experts. Therefore, the issues addressed in this paper are twofold: • Enhancing effective participation and communication among experts and non-experts via an easy-to-use and interactive exchange platform. • Exploiting the local knowledge and user-generated content to enrich urban planning actions, though the use of Internet and Web 2.0 collaborative tools. In this paper, we combine principles of public participation, urban planning, PPGIS, and Web 2.0 tools to, first, develop a Web 2.0 PPGIS prototype, and, second, to evaluate its usability in a real-world case study of Canela, Brazil. We first outline the background ideas and technologies used in our project and describe related works. Then, the case study is presented. The following two sections describe the prototype implementation and assess the usability test. Finally, we close with lessons learned from the project, and future work recommendations.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper’s assumption is that PPGIS and Web 2.0 technologies help to develop alternative ways for public participation, engage more people, and encourage open communication between citizens and decision makers. To recognize the ability of these technologies, we developed a Web 2.0 PPGIS application and promoted an evaluation test with citizens, considering that this application is uncommon in urban planning, especially in Brazil. Practical results show that participants found it easy-to-use, useful for communication, and that it may support participatory urban planning. Comments were relevant to planning issues and users did not have substantial problems in using the tool. Besides, they reflect great satisfaction and excitement about a possible institutional implementation linking to other web sites like local government and local tourist offices. In their opinion, it could improve their participation in decision making. Accordingly, it confirms the potential of Web 2.0 and PPGIS in participatory urban planning. Further work should focus on exploiting the benefits of user-generated content to better organize the feedback for spatial planning in a useful way. Besides, future research questions may center on trust and reputation issues, and how to deal with user’s estimation of location. The Web 2.0 PPGIS makes urban planning information available to citizens 24/7 in a useful way, different from traditional meetings, where there is minimal chance of interchange and information understanding. It promotes communication among users, and most importantly, vertically – with decision makers – in a more interactive and straightforward way. Essentially, we believe that combining conveniently traditional methods with novel Web 2.0 participatory tools notably strengthens participatory urban planning and will eventually empower the role of citizens. Acknowledgments