منافع اقتصادی از بودجه عمومی پژوهش های بنیادی: یک بررسی انتقادی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|24353||2001||24 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||15107 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research Policy, Volume 30, Issue 3, 1 March 2001, Pages 509–532
This article critically reviews the literature on the economic benefits of publicly funded basic research. In that literature, three main methodological approaches have been adopted — econometric studies, surveys and case studies. Econometric studies are subject to certain methodological limitations but they suggest that the economic benefits are very substantial. These studies have also highlighted the importance of spillovers and the existence of localisation effects in research. From the literature based on surveys and on case studies, it is clear that the benefits from public investment in basic research can take a variety of forms. We classify these into six main categories, reviewing the evidence on the nature and extent of each type. The relative importance of these different forms of benefit apparently varies with scientific field, technology and industrial sector. Consequently, no simple model of the economic benefits from basic research is possible. We reconsider the rationale for government funding of basic research, arguing that the traditional ‘market failure’ justification needs to be extended to take account of these different forms of benefit from basic research. The article concludes by identifying some of the policy implications that follow from this review.
The relationship between publicly funded basic research and economic performance is an important one. Considerable government funds are spent on basic research in universities, institutes and elsewhere, yet scientists and research funding agencies constantly argue that more is needed. At the same time, governments face numerous competing demands for public funding. To many, the benefits associated with public spending on, say, health or education are more obvious than those from basic research. However, as this article will show, there is extensive evidence that basic research does lead to considerable economic benefits, both direct and indirect. Those responsible for deciding how the limited public funds available are to be distributed (and for ensuring public accountability in relation to that expenditure) should therefore be familiar with the full range of relevant research. To this end, we review and assess the literature on the economic benefits associated with publicly funded basic research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study, we have critically reviewed the literature on the economic benefits of publicly funded research. As we have seen, this literature falls into three main categories. One consists of econometric studies, where there have been numerous attempts to estimate the impact of research (in general) on productivity. Virtually all have found a positive rate of return, and in most cases the figure has been comparatively high. However, these attempts have been beset with both measurement difficulties and conceptual problems such as the assumption of a simple production function model of the science system. In particular, they tend to assume that research is, first and foremost, a source of useful information to be drawn upon in the development of new technologies, products and processes. This ignores the other forms of economic benefit discussed in Section 5.