دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 24690
عنوان فارسی مقاله

انتخاب زیر مجموعه گروهی برای رگرسیون خطی

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
24690 2014 14 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید 10410 کلمه
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عنوان انگلیسی
Group subset selection for linear regression
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Volume 75, July 2014, Pages 39–52

کلمات کلیدی
انتخاب زیر مجموعه - گروه کمند - رگرسیون خطی - نمایش فیلم -
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله انتخاب زیر مجموعه گروهی برای رگرسیون خطی

چکیده انگلیسی

Two fast group subset selection (GSS) algorithms for the linear regression model are proposed in this paper. GSS finds the best combinations of groups up to a specified size minimising the residual sum of squares. This imposes an l0 constraint on the regression coefficients in a group context. It is a combinatorial optimisation problem with NP complexity. To make the exhaustive search very efficient, the GSS algorithms are built on QR decomposition and branch-and-bound techniques. They are suitable for middle scale problems where finding the most accurate solution is essential. In the application motivating this research, it is natural to require that the coefficients of some of the variables within groups satisfy some constraints (e.g. non-negativity). Therefore the GSS algorithms (optionally) calculate the model coefficient estimates during the exhaustive search in order to screen combinations that do not meet the constraints. The faster of the two GSS algorithms is compared to an extension to the original group Lasso, called the constrained group Lasso (CGL), which is proposed to handle convex constraints and to remove orthogonality requirements on the variables within each group. CGL is a convex relaxation of the GSS problem and hence more straightforward to solve. Although CGL is inferior to GSS in terms of group selection accuracy, it is a fast approximation to GSS if the optimal regularisation parameter can be determined efficiently and, in some cases, it may serve as a screening procedure to reduce the number of groups.

مقدمه انگلیسی

In some regression problems it is natural to fit “groups” of explanatory variables at the same time. For example, in a birth weight data study (Yuan and Lin, 2006, Section 8), the authors used third-order polynomials to account for the non-linear effects of both mother’s age and weight. Another example (Jacob and Obozinski, 2009, Section 9.4) is pathway analysis using biologically meaningful gene groups instead of individual genes. In this paper, we focus on a mineral spectroscopy application which motivated our research. Spectroscopy is a fast surrogate for chemistry. The shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance spectrum of a mixture of minerals can be well approximated (after suitable transformation) by a linear combination of the spectra of its pure components. The coefficients in the linear model represent (in a semi-quantitative sense) the relative amounts of the corresponding mineral, so it makes sense to constrain them to be non-negative. Any single spectrum of a mixture contains only an identifiably small subset of the minerals in the library. For instance, our SWIR library contains multiple samples of 60 materials (mostly minerals). However, we and our specialist geologist collaborators have never observed a spectroscopic mixture in the SWIR of more than four materials. The most important objective in this problem is, not to be able to predict spectra, but to identify correctly which minerals are in the mixture. A secondary objective is to estimate as accurately as possible the relative amounts of the minerals in the mixture. Fig. 1 shows the 12 spectra in each of the Kaolinite_WX and Gypsum classes in our SWIR library after background removal and scaling. This will be further discussed in Section 5.1. Typically, we use the first principal component (PC) of the scaled and background removed spectra in a class to represent the whole class in a linear model. However, as can be seen in Fig. 1, the relative variation within the Gypsum class is much greater than that within the Kaolinite_WX class. This suggests that for classes such as Gypsum, one PC cannot adequately describe the whole class. Therefore it is useful to model some materials with multiple PC’s to capture their greater variation. This results in the requirement of fitting several PC’s together as a group to represent a material in the model. Furthermore, when the number of groups is large, it is often that only a small number of groups is needed to model the response variable, and so the question of how to choose the “best” groups arises. Full-size image (29 K) (a) Kaolinite_WX. Figure options Full-size image (35 K) (b) Gypsum. Figure options Fig. 1 Scaled residuals for spectra (dotted lines) in (a) the Kaolinite_WX class and (b) the Gypsum class. The red solid curves in the plots are the first PC’s of these two classes. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) We will consider group subset selection in the linear regression context. Formally, we assume that there are GG groups of DD-dimensional variables, View the MathML sourcexgi,i=1,…,Ng,g=1,…,G (where NgNg is the number of variables in group gg and ∑gNg=N∑gNg=N), and a DD-dimensional response variable View the MathML sourcey. Further, there is a subset of the GG groups of (small) size MM (M≤GM≤G), AM∈{1,…,G}AM∈{1,…,G}, whose linear combination is a good model for View the MathML sourcey. This can be represented as the linear model equation(1.1) View the MathML sourcey=∑g∈AM∑i=1Ngβgixgi+ϵ, Turn MathJax on where View the MathML sourceϵ represents the error. In regard to estimation of βgiβgi, the regression coefficient for variable View the MathML sourcexgi, we consider ordinary least squares (OLS) minimising the following residual sum of squares (RSS) equation(1.2) View the MathML sourceRSS=‖y−∑g∈AM∑i=1Ngβgixgi‖22. Turn MathJax on Group subset selection (GSS) for OLS is defined as choosing AMAM and coefficients βgiβgi to minimise (1.2) for given MM. At various points in the paper, it will be convenient to consider the non-group version of (1.2), i.e. given MM, choose the subset of MMvariables AMAM and coefficients, βi,i∈AMβi,i∈AM to minimise equation(1.3) View the MathML sourceRSS=‖y−∑i∈AMβixi‖22. Turn MathJax on We will henceforth call minimisation of (1.3) variable subset selection (VSS). If we collect all the regression coefficients in a vector View the MathML sourceβ, the condition of |AM|=M|AM|=M is actually equivalent to View the MathML source‖β‖l0=M where View the MathML source‖x‖l0 is the number of nonzero entries in the vector View the MathML sourcex. Both VSS and GSS are combinatorial optimisation problems and therefore NP hard to solve. Of course, another “complication” of GSS is how to choose MM, i.e. model selection. This issue will be discussed briefly later in this paper. However the main focus will be on efficient methods of minimising (1.2), given MM. Approximation of (1.2) has been considered by Yuan and Lin (2006). Generalising the Lasso (Tibshirani, 1996), they develop the group Lasso (GL) as a convex relaxation of (1.2). This selects groups via the use of l1/l2l1/l2 regularisation on regression coefficients replacing the stringent l0l0. GL transforms the difficult combinatorial optimisation problem to an easier convex programming at the cost of introducing a bias due to the regularisation. This may not be a serious problem in prediction problems. However, in some applications such as mineral spectroscopy, where the central problem is correct identification rather than prediction, the bias will often decrease classification accuracy. For example Guo and Berman (2012) demonstrated that, in the variable selection context, direct minimisation of (1.3) usually has lower error rates in the identification of mineral composition than the Lasso does. Because GL inherits the regularisation bias of the Lasso, we decided to generalise VSS to GSS. There are three primary aspects to the generalisation: (i) the obvious extension of variables to groups, (ii) optimisation of the code, which makes it significantly faster in certain situations, and (iii) the optional inclusion of some constraints on some of the coefficients. The paper is structured as follows. Section 2 consists of a brief literature review of subset selection algorithms in the non-group context. Two fast GSS algorithms optimising (1.2) directly are presented in Section 3. We compare GSS with the GL algorithm of Yuan and Lin (2006) which is the best known regularised group selection algorithm. However, GL has two shortcomings: (i) it requires variables within each group to be orthogonal and (ii) it does not allow optional convex constraints on the coefficients of some variables. Therefore, in Section 4, we present an extension of GL, called the constrained group Lasso (CGL), which overcomes these problems. GSS, VSS and CGL are compared in terms of accuracy and speed in Section 5, with the aid of the spectroscopic unmixing problem. The work is summarised and possible future research is discussed in Section 6.

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