برچسب گذاری قابلیت کاربر نهایی : روش نظارت شده و نیمه نظارت بر اساس رگرسیون لجستیک به صورت محلی وزنی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|24994||2013||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12724 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Artificial Intelligence, Volume 204, November 2013, Pages 56–74
When intelligent interfaces, such as intelligent desktop assistants, email classifiers, and recommender systems, customize themselves to a particular end user, such customizations can decrease productivity and increase frustration due to inaccurate predictions—especially in early stages when training data is limited. The end user can improve the learning algorithm by tediously labeling a substantial amount of additional training data, but this takes time and is too ad hoc to target a particular area of inaccuracy. To solve this problem, we propose new supervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms based on locally-weighted logistic regression for feature labeling by end users, enabling them to point out which features are important for a class, rather than provide new training instances. We first evaluate our algorithms against other feature labeling algorithms under idealized conditions using feature labels generated by an oracle. In addition, another of our contributions is an evaluation of feature labeling algorithms under real-world conditions using feature labels harvested from actual end users in our user study. Our user study is the first statistical user study for feature labeling involving a large number of end users (43 participants), all of whom have no background in machine learning. Our supervised and semi-supervised algorithms were among the best performers when compared to other feature labeling algorithms in the idealized setting and they are also robust to poor quality feature labels provided by ordinary end users in our study. We also perform an analysis to investigate the relative gains of incorporating the different sources of knowledge available in the labeled training set, the feature labels and the unlabeled data. Together, our results strongly suggest that feature labeling by end users is both viable and effective for allowing end users to improve the learning algorithm behind their customized applications
Many applications, powered by machine learning, customize themselves to a particular end userʼs preferences. Such applications include email classifiers, recommender systems, intelligent desktop assistants, and other intelligent user interfaces. To accomplish this customization, the application must learn from the particular end user—which obviously cannot happen until after the system is deployed and training data from that specific end user is obtained. Customizing to the end userʼs preferences is challenging, especially when there is limited training data, such as when the application is first deployed. The end user could select additional training instances to label, or the learning algorithm could ask the user to provide class labels for strategically chosen instances that would most inform the learning algorithm, as is done in traditional active-learning  and . Labeling instances, however, has its drawbacks. First, labeling data instances is a tedious process and a substantial number of instances must often be labeled before a change to the learning algorithm is noticeable to an end user. Second, in a streaming data setting, such as news filtering or email classification, active-learning is not applicable as the system has no control over which data instance arrives next. Finally, if a rare group of instances is incorrectly classified, the learning algorithm cannot be “corrected” until the user labels instances with this rare combination of attributes. Since this group is rare, the cost, in terms of time or effort, to acquire such data instances could be very expensive . To overcome these problems, in this paper1 we investigate the possibility of end-user feature labeling , ,  and , namely allowing end users to label features instead of instances. Here, the term feature refers to an attribute of a data instance that is useful for predicting the class label; for example, rather than labeling entire documents, an end user could point out which words (features) in the document are most indicative of certain class labels. Fig. 1 shows this approach in our formative researchʼs user interface , which allowed HCI researchers to point out words that were predictive of that transcript segmentʼs label. Raghavan et al.  and  found that labeling a feature took humans roughly a fifth of the time as a document and the benefits of feature labeling were greatest when the training set sizes were small. However, their work did not evaluate feature labeling in a statistical user study involving a large number of actual end users. Full-size image (15 K) Fig. 1. The user is pointing out that the feature “let me look” is highly indicative of the class “Seeking Info”. (This UI inspired the development of the algorithms we present in this paper.) Figure options Allowing end users, who are not likely to be educated in machine learning, to use feature labeling introduces new challenges to learning algorithms. End usersʼ choices of features may be noisy, inconsistent, and might vary greatly in ability to improve the predictive power of the machine learning algorithm. This paper therefore investigates algorithms able to stand up to these challenges. Our research contributions are as follows. First, we present a new supervised learning algorithm for taking end-user feature labels into account, based on Locally-Weighted Logistic Regression. In order to evaluate our feature labeling algorithm, we perform an empirical comparison on multiple data sets under ideal conditions, using feature labels obtained from an oracle, and under real-world conditions for one particular dataset, using feature labels harvested from actual end users. For the latter study, we present a user study in which ordinary end users, unfamiliar with machine learning, chose the feature labels themselves—with no restrictions as to what they could select as features. Our algorithm was among the best performing feature labeling algorithms in the idealized setting and it was also robust to poor quality feature labels provided by ordinary end users in our study. Next, we present a semi-supervised version of our feature labeling algorithm which assumes that an unlabeled set of instances is present during training. The semi-supervised setting for feature labeling incorporates knowledge from three sources: a small labeled training set, the feature labels provided by the end user and information from the implicit structure of the unlabeled data. We evaluate our semi-supervised algorithm using both oracle feature labels and end-user feature labels from the user study mentioned above. Our feature labeling algorithm is one of the best performing algorithms with oracle feature labels and the best performer with lower quality feature labels from end users. With our results, we can compare the relative gains using the different sources of knowledge available in the training set, the feature labels, and the unlabeled data. Our analysis shows that incorporating unlabeled data during learning sometimes produces worse performance than just using a purely supervised learning approach, both with and without feature labeling. However, adding the information from feature labels consistently improves performance over not including this information, both in the supervised and semi-supervised settings. Together, our results strongly suggest that feature labeling by end users is both a viable and an effective solution for allowing end users to improve the learning algorithm behind their customized user interface.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This work has investigated the viability of both supervised and semi-supervised feature labeling in real circumstances, with end users freely choosing features to label directly from text documents. Our new supervised LWLR-FL algorithm expands LWLR to take feature labeling into account. Our results show that LWLR-FL was among the best performing supervised feature labeling algorithms under ideal conditions in an oracle study. In our user study, we allowed ordinary end users to select any features for labeling directly from text documents. LWLR-FL and MNB/Priors both were robust against lower quality feature labels in this more realistic setting, with MNB/Priors being the best performing algorithm overall. Furthermore, our sensitivity analysis showed that LWLR-FL was robust to different parameter settings. As to the end-user labels themselves, we showed that real end usersʼ feature labels helped on average for all algorithms, with the features end users chose for labeling to be conceptually related to the class labels, although with moderately lower information gains compared to those of the oracleʼs. These results are promising, as they show that end users with no background in machine learning can use feature labeling to significantly improve machine learning algorithms trained on small data sets. We also proposed a new semi-supervised LWLR-SS-FL algorithm, which extends LWLR-FL to incorporate information from a pool of unlabeled data. With oracle feature labels, LWLR-SS-FL and GE were the best performing algorithms over the six datasets in our evaluation. With end user feature labels, LWLR-SS-FL outperformed all other algorithms. Even in situations where the unlabeled data (without feature labeling) degraded performance below the supervised learning LWLR baseline, semi-supervised learning in combination with feature labeling was able to overcome this deficit and outperform this baseline. Finally, our results point to promising future research. First, we intend to design suitable user interfaces to help end users choose and create features to label. Second, we would like to improve the LWLR-SS-FL algorithm by making it more scalable to large datasets and more robust to its diffusion kernel width parameter setting. Taken together, these results demonstrate that feature labeling by end users, especially in the supervised learning setting, is an overall effective solution for augmenting the learning process to use knowledge beyond labeled training instances. Semi-supervised feature labeling can be effective in some cases, but the unlabeled data may degrade performance if it does not match the algorithmʼs assumptions.