رگرسیون لجستیک وزنی برای داده های رویدادی عدم تعادل و نادر در مقیاس بزرگ
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|24996||2014||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5521 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Knowledge-Based Systems, Volume 59, March 2014, Pages 142–148
Latest developments in computing and technology, along with the availability of large amounts of raw data, have led to the development of many computational techniques and algorithms. Concerning binary data classification in particular, analysis of data containing rare events or disproportionate class distributions poses a great challenge to industry and to the machine learning community. Logistic Regression (LR) is a powerful classifier. The combination of LR and the truncated-regularized iteratively re-weighted least squares (TR-IRLS) algorithm, has provided a powerful classification method for large data sets. This study examines imbalanced data with binary response variables containing many more non-events (zeros) than events (ones). It has been established in the literature that these variables are difficult to predict and explain. This research combines rare events corrections to LR with truncated Newton methods. The proposed method, Rare Event Weighted Logistic Regression (RE-WLR), is capable of processing large imbalanced data sets at relatively the same processing speed as the TR-IRLS, however, with higher accuracy.
In recent years, much attention in the machine learning community has been drawn to the problem of imbalanced or rare-events data. There are two main reasons for this. The first is that most of the traditional models and algorithms are based on the assumption that the classes in the data are balanced or evenly distributed. However, in many real-life applications the data is imbalanced, and when the imbalance is extreme, this problem is termed the rare events problem or the imbalanced data problem. Hence, the rare class presents several problems and challenges to existing classification algorithms  and . The second reason for concern is the importance of rare events in real-life applications. By definition, rare events are occurrences that take place with a substantially lower frequency than commonly occurring events. Applications such as internet security , bankruptcy early warning systems and predictions  and  are gaining more importance in recent years. Other examples of rare events include fraudulent credit card transactions , word mispronunciation , tornadoes , telecommunication equipment failures , oil spills , international conflicts , state failure , landslides  and , train derailments  and rare events in a series of queues  among others. King and Zeng  state that the problems associated with REs stem from two sources. First, when probabilistic statistical methods, such as Logistic Regression (LR), are used, they underestimate the probability of rare events, because they tend to be biased towards the majority class, which is the less important class. Second, commonly used data collection strategies are inefficient for rare events data. A dilemma exists between gathering more observations (instances) and including more informational, useful variables in the data set. When one of the classes represents a rare event, researchers tend to collect very large numbers of observations with very few explanatory variables in order to include as much data as possible for the rare class. This in turn could significantly increase the cost of data collection without boosting the underestimated probability of detecting the rare class or the rare event. King and Zeng  advocate under-sampling of the majority class when statistical methods such as LR are employed. They clearly demonstrated, however, that such designs are only consistent and efficient with the appropriate corrections. Linear classification is an extremely important machine-learning and data-mining tool. Compared to other classification techniques, such as the kernel methods, which transform data into higher dimensional space, linear classifiers are implemented directly on data in their original space. The main advantage of linear classifiers is their efficient training and testing procedures, especially when implemented on large and high-dimensional data sets . Logistic regression  and , which is a linear classifier, has been proven to be a powerful classifier by providing probabilities and by extending to multi-class classification problems  and . The advantages of using LR are that it has been extensively studied , and recently it has been improved through the use of truncated Newton’s methods , , ,  and . Furthermore, LR does not make assumptions about the distribution of the independent variables and it includes the probabilities of occurrences as a natural extension. Moreover, LR requires solving only unconstrained optimization problems. Hence, with the right algorithms, the computation time can be much less than that of other methods, such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) , which require solving a constrained quadratic optimization problem. Komarek  were the first to implement the truncated-regularized iteratively re-weighted least squares (TR-IRLS) on LR to classify large data sets, and they demonstrated that it can outperform the Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm. Later on, trust region Newton method , which is a type of truncated Newton, and truncated Newton interior-point methods  were applied for large scale LR problems. The objective of this study is to provide a basis for solving problems with data that are at once large and imbalanced or rare-event data. This paper is an extension of the work proposed by Maalouf and Saleh , which introduces the implementation of LR rare-event corrections to the TR-IRLS algorithm. The algorithm proposed is termed Rare Event-Weighted Logistic Regression (RE-WLR), and is based on the RE-WKLR algorithm, developed by Maalouf and Trafalis . The RE-WKLR is appropriate for small-to-medium size data sets in terms of both computational speed and accuracy. The ultimate objective is to gain significantly more accuracy in predictive REs with diminished bias and variance. Weighting, regularization, approximate numerical methods, bias correction, and efficient implementation are critical to enabling RE-WLR to be an effective and powerful method for predicting rare events in large data sets. Our analysis involves the standard multivariate cases in finite dimensional spaces. In Section 2 we derive the LR model for the rare events and imbalanced data problems. Section 3 describes the Rare-Event Weighted Logistic Regression (RE-WLR) algorithm. Numerical results are presented in Section 4, and Section 5 addresses the conclusions and future work.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We have presented the Rare Event Weighted Logistic Regression (RE-WLR) algorithm, which is based on the Rare Event Weighted Kernel Logistic Regression (RE-WLR) algorithm, and have shown that the RE-WLR algorithm is easy and robust when implemented on large imbalanced and rare event data, and it performed better than TR-IRLS. The algorithm combines several concepts from the fields of statistics, econometrics and machine learning. The RE-WLR algorithm utilizes bias correction and regularization. Future studies may implement the proposed algorithm on more data sets in order to ascertain its strength.