بازبینی منطقه ای : بررسی جهت گسترش بحران ارز
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|25164||2011||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 30, Issue 5, September 2011, Pages 831–848
What determines the direction of spread of currency crises? We examine data on waves of currency crises in 1992, 1994, 1997, and 1998 to evaluate several hypotheses on the determinants of contagion. We simultaneously consider trade competition, financial links, and institutional similarity to the “ground zero” country as potential drivers of contagion. To overcome data limitations and account for model uncertainty, we utilize Bayesian methodologies hitherto unused in the empirical literature on contagion. In particular, we use the Bayesian averaging of binary models that allows us to take into account the uncertainty regarding the appropriate set of regressors. We find that institutional similarity to the ground zero country plays an important role in determining the direction of contagion in all the emerging market currency crises in our dataset. We thus provide persuasive evidence in favour of the “wake-up call” hypothesis for financial contagion. Trade and financial links may also play a role in determining the direction of contagion, but their importance varies amongst the crisis periods.
Currency crises tend to occur in waves. In repeated instances from the early 1970s to the late 1990s it has been observed that when speculative attacks lead to a currency crisis in one country, market volatility tends to spread to other countries in the region and elsewhere. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, generally referred to as contagion. Commonly discussed mechanisms include the transmission of crises through trade and financial links between countries, as well as the (rational) updating of beliefs by financial traders about the sustainability of specific institutional and developmental models. The latter is sometimes referred to as the “wake-up call” theory of financial contagion. In this paper we empirically evaluate the relative importance of a number of potential transmission mechanisms that have been proposed in the existing literature, by analysing four waves of currency crises in the 1990s. We make two contributions. First, we simultaneously include institutional (quality-of-governance) variables alongside the trade, finance and macroeconomic variables commonly analysed in empirical literature on contagious currency crises, thereby directly testing the “wake-up call” hypothesis. Second, we utilize Bayesian methodologies hitherto unused in the empirical literature on contagion to overcome model uncertainty and data limitations. In particular, we use Bayesian averaging of binary models, which allows us to take into account the uncertainty regarding the set of regressors that should be included in the empirical analysis of contagion. Before proceeding further, it is worth clarifying the remit of our exercise. In this paper we do not seek to enter the debate on whether contagion exists. While there are now several theoretical equilibrium models of contagion, there is not yet complete empirical agreement about whether contagion exists.1 In this paper, we simply assume that contagion exists and aim only to shed light on the mechanisms by which it may propagate. Much of the extant empirical literature on contagious currency crises stresses the phenomenon of regional contagion. It focuses on trade and financial links, which tend to occur in geographical clusters, and finds evidence in favour of both as potential transmission mechanisms for contagion.2 However, the currency crises of the 1990s have spread far beyond the region of the original crisis country. Glick and Rose (1999) deem that Hong Kong, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand were affected by the “Mexican crisis” in 1994/1995, while Argentina, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Hungary and South Africa are considered to have been among the victims of the Asian Crisis. According to Van Rijckeghem and Weder (2001) the Russian crisis of 1998 affected 16 countries outside the former Soviet Union, including Argentina, Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Africa and Turkey. While trade competition in third markets or financial links may be possible explanations for extra-regional contagion, it is also interesting to examine the possibility that a speculative attack on a country follows from a “wake-up call” regarding a specific model of development: a currency crisis in one country may highlight vulnerabilities associated with a particular set of institutional features, which may also be found in other countries outside the region. There is now much data measuring the institutional features of different countries. Our paper contributes to the literature by directly testing the extent to which institutional similarity with the “ground zero” country determines the direction of spread of currency crises. This is done while simultaneously considering standard factors such as trade competition and financial links to give an overall view of the drivers of financial contagion in foreign exchange markets. In addition, our paper utilizes recent econometric methodology that is relevant to the empirical analysis of financial contagion. There is no universally agreed-upon theoretical model of contagion: several alternative hypotheses coexist. In the presence of such model uncertainty, Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a natural candidate for empirical work in this area. The idea of BMA was first proposed by Leamer (1978). It is a tool for forecasting and estimation when the researcher does not know the true model. Starting from a prior where all possible models are considered to be equally good, the method allows researchers to estimate the posterior probabilities of the models, using the data, and then weight their estimates and forecasts from each model by such posterior probabilities. While BMA has recently been extensively used in applied problems (see various references below), we are the first to use it in the context of financial contagion. In addition to this, Bayesian methods allow us to overcome data limitations. Empirical samples in the contagion literature are small: in all previous studies the number of observations is below 100 countries. Of these only a small subset experiences a crisis in each episode of contagion. Unlike maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods are also valid in small samples.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We contribute to the empirical literature on financial contagion by considering institutional similarity to the ground zero country, measured via governance indicators, as a determinant of the direction of spread of currency crises. We find that for the emerging market crises of 1994, 1997, and 1998, institutional similarity played a substantial role in determining the direction of contagion. Simultaneously, we consider more traditional channels of contagion, including trade and financial links. We are thus able to establish the relative importance of these various channels. Our analysis also utilizes recent econometric methodology that is relevant to the analysis of financial contagion. In the absence of a single unified model of financial contagion, researchers are faced with model uncertainty in estimation and prediction. We use Bayesian model averaging to overcome these problems, a method hitherto unused in the literature on financial contagion. Our results provide direction to theoretical modellers on the ingredients that should go into a model of financial contagion, particularly with respect to institutions. However, our results suggest that there are important differences between crises. We are, therefore, still far away from a unified model of financial contagion and accurate prediction of future crises based on past crises.