کارآفرینی : ارتباط آن با جهت گیری بازار و جهت گیری یادگیری و به عنوان سوابق برای نوآوری و ارزش مشتری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|2597||2011||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8080 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, April 2011, Pages 336–345
This paper seeks to address two main problems. First, it evaluates the direct effect of entrepreneurship and business orientations namely, learning orientation, integrated market orientation and human resource practices on innovation and customer value. Second, it examines the interaction effect of entrepreneurship and business orientations on innovation and customer value. Data were collected from small and medium-size hotels in Indonesia and analysed using the structural equation model. The results show that entrepreneurship and human resource management were shown to be the most significant drivers of innovation and customer value. The results further suggest that interaction of entrepreneurship and integrated market orientation as well as human resource practices has significant impact on customer value and innovation respectively. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.
The interrelationships among entrepreneurship, market orientation, learning orientation, innovation and its implications for business performance have been widely examined in the marketing literature (Bhunian et al., 2005 and Chen et al., 2009). Slater and Narver (1995) suggest that an entrepreneurial culture promotes learning orientation. The characteristics of entrepreneurship including autonomy, proactiveness, and risk taking are strongly related to knowledge attainment, and the development of new behaviours to encourage learning (Slater & Narver, 1995). From another perspective, organizational learning will lead to organizational staff adopting entrepreneurial characteristics at the individual level, which may translate into entrepreneurial climate in organizations. Similarly, market orientation with an entrepreneurial drive provides the cultural foundation for organizational learning, which enables a firm to achieve a higher level of performance and better customer value (Slater & Narver, 1995). Matsuno, Mentzer, and Ozsomer (2002) suggest that the greater the level of entrepreneurial proclivity, the greater the level of market orientation. In this sense, organizations with higher levels of market orientation tend to place more emphasis on entrepreneurship (Matsuno et al., 2002). The adoption of entrepreneurship in organizations enables organizations to identify the latent needs of customers and innovative ways to address their existing needs. A primary entrepreneurial activity is not only to create better products than competitors but also to lead the industry in recognising customers' evolving needs (Slater & Narver, 1995). Thus, an integrated market orientation with its focus on understanding both expressed and latent customer needs is inherently entrepreneurial (Slater & Narver, 1995). Matsuno et al. (2002) suggest that entrepreneurship facilitates organizational members' willingness and ability to commit to market learning activities, to recognise the need to reduce uncertainty and take more calculated risk. This promotes a strong market orientation.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study aims to investigate the direct and interaction effects of entrepreneurship and business orientations to innovation and customer value. Entrepreneurship and human resource management were shown to be the most significant drivers of innovation and customer value. The results further suggest that including interaction variables in the base model has improved the relationships among entrepreneurship, learning orientation, integrated market orientation, human resource practices and innovation as well as customer value. This is indicated by the greater values of the coefficient estimates of each main variable. Specifically, interactions of entrepreneurship and integrated market orientation as well as entrepreneurship and human resource practices have significant impact on customer value and innovation respectively. This study has a number of implications for managers and academics. First, an entrepreneurial culture is positively related to innovation and customer value. These relationships remain strong after controlling for market orientation, learning orientation and human resource practices. Second, the most important predictor of innovation and customer value is human resource practices. This is consistent with research emerging from internal marketing. The way employees are treated and empowered is strongly related to how they are willing to provide superior customer value and to engage with innovative approaches to serving the customer. As would be expected market orientation is positively related to innovation and customer value. This is consistent with the vast literature on market orientation. This study further shows that the benefits of entrepreneurship are greatest, when human resource practices are effective or when market orientation is high. This result has not been shown before but has important implications. Thus, we were able to show that market orientation and human resource practices are moderators of the relationship between entrepreneurship and customer values and innovation respectively. This implies that entrepreneurship thrives where human resource practices and market orientation are seen as effective.