تجزیه و تحلیل حساسیت شکلی از شکستگی مخلوط حالت مبتنی بر روش المان محدود فراکتال
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|25983||2008||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9316 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Volume 44, Issue 15, November 2008, Pages 875–888
In this paper, a new fractal finite element based method for continuum-based shape sensitivity analysis for a crack in a homogeneous, isotropic, and two-dimensional linear-elastic body subject to mixed-mode (modes I and II) loading conditions, is presented. The method is based on the material derivative concept of continuum mechanics, and direct differentiation. Parametric study is carried out to examine the effects of the similarity ratio, the number of transformation terms, and the integration order on the quality of the numerical solutions. Three numerical examples which include both mode-I and mixed-mode problems, are presented to calculate the first-order derivative of the JJ-integral or stress-intensity factors. The results show that first-order sensitivities of JJ-integral or stress-intensity factors obtained using the proposed method are in excellent agreement with the reference solutions obtained using the finite-difference method for the structural and crack geometries considered in this study.
Recently, methods based on fractal geometry concepts to generate infinite number of finite elements around the crack tip to capture the crack tip singularity have been developed or investigated to solve linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) problems , , ,  and . Fractal finite element method (FFEM) is one such method developed for calculating the stress-intensity factors (SIFs) in linear-elastic crack problems. In its original form, the fractal two-level finite element method (FEM) was first proposed by Leung and Su in 1993 , which has been successfully applied since its origin, to solve many kinds of crack problems under mode-I and mixed-mode loading conditions , , , , , ,  and . Compared with other numerical methods like finite element method (FEM), FFEM has several advantages. First, by using the concept of fractal geometry, infinite finite elements are generated virtually around the crack tip, and hence the effort for data preparation can be minimized. Second, based on the eigenfunction expansion of the displacement fields  and , the infinite finite elements that generate virtually by fractal geometry around the crack tip are transformed in an expeditious manner. This results in reducing the computational time and the memory requirement for fracture analysis of cracked structures. Third, no special finite elements and post-processing are needed to determine the SIFs. Finally, as the analytical solution is embodied in the transformation, the accuracy of the predicted SIFs is high. In addition to the SIFs, the derivatives of the SIFs are often required to predict the probability of fracture initiation and/or instability in cracked structures. Hence, sensitivity analysis of a crack-driving force plays an important role in many fracture-mechanics applications involving the stability and arrest of crack propagation, reliability analysis, parameter identification, or other considerations. For example, the first- and second-order reliability methods , frequently used in probabilistic fracture mechanics , , , , ,  and , require the gradient and Hessian of the performance function with respect to random parameters. In LEFM, the performance function is built on the SIFs. Hence, both first-and/or second-order derivatives of JJ-integral or SIFs are needed for probabilistic analysis. The evaluation of response derivatives with respect to crack size is a challenging task, since it requires shape sensitivity analysis. Using a brute-force type finite-difference method to calculate the shape sensitivities is often computationally expensive, in that numerous repetitions of deterministic FEM or FFEM analysis may be required for a complete reliability analysis. Furthermore, if the finite-difference perturbations are too large relative to finite element meshes, the approximations can be inaccurate, whereas if the perturbations are too small, numerical truncation errors may become significant. Therefore, an important requirement of some fracture-mechanics applications is to evaluate the rates of SIFs accurately and efficiently. Consequently, analytical methods based on virtual crack extension , , , ,  and  and continuum shape sensitivity theory , , , ,  and  have emerged. In 1988, Lin and Abel  introduced a virtual crack extension technique to calculate the first-order derivative of mode-I SIF for a structure containing a single crack. This method maintains all of the advantages of similar virtual crack extension techniques introduced by deLorenzi  and , Haber and Koh , and Barbero and Reddy , but adds a capability to calculate the derivatives of the SIFs. Subsequently, Hwang et al. , ,  and  generalized this method to calculate both first- and second-order derivatives for structures with multiple crack systems, axisymmetric stress states, and crack-face and thermal loading. However, this method requires mesh perturbation—a fundamental requirement of all virtual crack extension techniques. For second-order derivatives, the number of elements affected by mesh perturbation surrounding the crack tip has a significant effect on solution accuracy , ,  and . Feijóo et al.  applied the concepts of continuum shape sensitivity theory  to calculate the first-order derivative of the potential energy. Since the energy release rate (ERR) is the first-order derivative of potential energy, the ERR or SIFs can be calculated using this approach, without any mesh perturbation. Later, Taroco  extended this approach to formulate the second-order sensitivity of potential energy to predict the first-order derivative of the ERR. However, this presents a formidable task, since it involves calculation of second-order stress and strain sensitivities. To overcome this difficulty, Chen et al.  and  invoked the domain integral representation of the JJ-integral and used the material derivative concept of continuum mechanics to obtain first-order sensitivity of the JJ-integral for linear-elastic cracked structures. Since this method requires only the first-order sensitivity of a displacement field, it is simpler and more efficient than existing methods. Subsequently, Chen et al.  extended their continuum shape sensitivity method for mixed-mode loading conditions. Rao and Rahman  and  developed a sensitivity analysis method for a crack in an isotropic, linear-elastic functionally graded material under mode-I and mixed-mode loading conditions. However, all of the above methods have been developed in conjunction with FEM. This paper presents a new FFEM based method for predicting the first-order sensitivity of JJ-integral or mode-I and mode-II SIFs, KIKI and KIIKII, respectively, for a crack in a homogeneous, isotropic, and two-dimensional linear-elastic structure subject to mixed-mode (modes I and II) loading conditions. The method is based on the material derivative concept of continuum mechanics, and direct differentiation. Numerical examples are presented to calculate the first-order derivative of the JJ-integral or SIFs, using the proposed method. The predicted numerical results from this method are compared with those obtained using the finite-difference methods.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Fractal finite element based method for continuum-based shape sensitivity analysis is presented for predicting the first-order sensitivity of JJ-integral or mode-I and mode-II stress-intensity factors for a crack in a homogeneous, isotropic, and two-dimensional linear-elastic body subject to mixed-mode (modes I and II) loading conditions. The method is based on the material derivative concept of continuum mechanics, and direct differentiation. Unlike virtual crack extension techniques, no mesh perturbation is needed in the proposed method to calculate the sensitivity of SIFs. Since the governing variational equation is differentiated prior to the process of discretization, the resulting sensitivity equations predicts the first-order sensitivity of JJ-integral or mode-I and mode-II SIFs, KIKI and KIIKII, more efficiently and accurately than the finite-difference methods. Unlike the integral based methods such as JJ-integral or MM-integral no special finite elements and post-processing are needed to determine the first-order sensitivity of JJ-integral or KIKI and KIIKII. Also a parametric study is carried out to examine the effects of the similarity ratio, the number of transformation terms, and the integration order on the quality of the numerical solutions. It is concluded that the similarity ratio greater than 0.4, and the number of transformation terms greater than six should be used to create fractal mesh, and that reduced integration may be used without producing significant errors in the sensitivity solutions. Three examples are presented to calculate the first-order derivative of JJ-integral or SIFs. Results show that first-order sensitivities of JJ-integral or SIFs obtained using the proposed method are in excellent agreement with the reference solutions obtained from the finite-difference methods for the structural and crack geometries considered in this study.