تغییرات در جوامع ماهیگیری ساحلی اسکاتلند، درک اجتماعی و اقتصادی پویایی ها برای کمک به مدیریت، برنامه ریزی و سیاست
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|26117||2005||23 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 48, Issues 9–10, 2005, Pages 670–692
This paper demonstrates how coastal areas, socio-economically dependent on marine capture fisheries, are working towards long-term sustainable community development. Two case studies (Shetland Islands and the North East region) were selected from Scotland, on the basis of their geographical (island versus mainland) and sectoral representation. The challenges facing these areas are typical for many coastal communities around the world. An outline of the current decline in fishing activity is described, with a spotlight on Scotland, to illustrate trends and issues at stake. The relationships between onshore human settlements, employment prospects and offshore activities including aquaculture, fishing, oil and gas, are explained. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis summarises emerging questions and new developments, highlighting the need to include information on social and economic factors in management plans and formulation of policy. The case study profiles inform on advances in economic and social diversification opportunities, e.g. through aquaculture, leisure and tourism initiatives. In recognition of the declining economic value of the oil industry to Shetland, this community has adopted a policy to identify and encourage potential development opportunities in its traditional industries, e.g. supporting fishing activities. In contrast, the North East of Scotland's approach is to create a more diverse sustainable economy by broadening its business base and re-training its workforce. Lessons learnt from the case studies are considered in the context of how they can aid current developments in policy such as the UK's efforts towards implementing the European Commission's recommendations on ICZM.
Along with most European Governments, the UK is committed to the implementation of the European Commission's (EC) recommendations on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) . In 2004, the UK completed a national stock-taking exercise where an analysis of major actors, laws and institutions that influence management of the coastal zone is summarised . This exercise was undertaken to inform development of national strategies (to be completed by 2006) for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, with a view to improving management of coastal zones. This is timely for Scotland given its many fragile coastal communities, especially those socio-economically dependent on threatened marine resources, like fisheries. The continual decline of fishing activity and related employment has forced hardship on many fisheries-dependent areas around the world, highlighting the need for coastal communities to consider economic diversification into other sectors such as, marine aquaculture, leisure and eco-tourism. This paper examines how different coastal regions of Scotland and their corresponding activities, communities and industries are changing in response to emerging issues and new developments. The relationships between onshore human settlements, employment prospects and offshore activities including aquaculture, fishing, leisure, oil and tourism, are briefly described. This study outlines the current decline in fishing activity and highlights how some coastal areas are diversifying from fishing into other sectors, particularly leisure, marine aquaculture and eco-tourism. Fishing was chosen as the main theme of the case studies in recognition of its historical influence on shaping coastal communities in Scotland and worldwide. In addition, the fisheries sector provides a useful basis for geographical and sectoral analysis (both case study areas rely on fishing and the oil and gas industries as a major source of employment and income). Trends and key issues identified are summarised in the form of a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis. The recommendations herein can build on the UK's ICZM stocktaking exercise . Similarly, there are lessons from the case studies that could be considered in other government's initiatives on coastal management, planning and policy agendas. For Scotland to sustain a marine fishing industry then the underlying social and economic factors—in addition to other issues including sustainable use, protection and conservation of the resource—need to be understood and integrated in the development of its national coastal strategy. Furthermore, this needs to be made explicit in the current developments for a European marine thematic strategy, due July 2005. To date, less attention has been given to the socio-economic factors when compared to the environmental and technical aspects of the marine capture fisheries sector. A broader knowledge base is required for the development of effective management plans where all the different aspects are considered together, e.g. the cultural, economic, environmental, legal, planning, political, regulatory, social, scientific and technological dimensions. The paper is divided into a further five sections. Section 2 describes the fishing industry in Scotland, illustrating the regional patterns of this sector and how its associated human settlements are changing—the trends observed are mirrored in similar communities around the world. Section 3 profiles a case study on the most socio-economically dependent fishing region in Scotland, the North East. A second case study is presented in Section 3 which studies an island fishing community, the Shetland Islands—has a different fleet structure to the previous mainland example—where fishing is regarded as the main source of economic activity both at present and for its future. The Shetland Islands are also interesting in that they differ from the mainland case study example in that in addition to its fisheries sector it has embraced a relatively new industry to Scotland, aquaculture. A comparative analysis of the two case studies is presented in the final part of Section 3 to highlight the main themes identified. In Section 4, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) identified in the two case studies are summarised. Section 5 draws out useful lessons from the case studies that can be taken into consideration as part of current developments on national coastal strategies, high on the agenda of many countries around the world. The findings of the case studies have further implications for the UK, as part of fulfilling the European Commission's recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Lessons learnt can also be considered as part of coastal management, planning and policy initiatives around the world as the fundamental issues are similar for coastal fishing communities. Finally, Section 6 concludes the paper outlining the main approaches needed to aid long-term sustainable community development. 2. The marine fishing industry with a spotlight on Scotland In 2000, total world production of marine capture fisheries, was estimated to be 71.3 million tonnes (excluding data for China) with 25% of major marine fish stocks being underexploited, and 47%, 18% and 10% representing fully, overexploited or significantly depleted stocks, respectively . In response to this, there have been increased efforts towards developing marine fisheries governance and management regimes that will ensure the sustainability and longer-term futures of this industry, its associated livelihoods and coastal communities. Coastal settlements in Scotland and elsewhere dependent on fishing acknowledge their precarious way of life and historically, have dealt with a continual decline of the marine fishery resource, largely attributed to techno-ecological problems. Many fishing communities have survived the “lows” in fishing. However, some regions such as the North East of Scotland are currently facing particular hardship in response to additional measures being introduced, such as tighter fishing regulations, decommissioning and closed fishing areas. Before considering how the effects of reduced fishing activity and the subsequent impacts on job losses and community structures can be minimised through economic diversification opportunities, the Scottish fishing industry is described next, as an example of how this sector is changing. In 2003, the Scottish fishing fleet landed sea fish worth 406.7 million Euros, representing 54% by value (62% by weight) of all landings by UK vessels . Some of the richest fishing grounds in EC waters are situated off the Scottish coast which supports 9 out of the 15 most important UK fishing ports. Approximately 69% of the total volume of sea fish landed into the UK in 2003 was landed into a Scottish port . Scotland is also the base for more than 50% of the over-10 m UK fishing-fleet and home to many communities mainly dependent on fishing-related activities as a source of income. The Scottish fishing industry represents around 0.6% of Scotland's GDP and 0.3% of the UK's. On a regional basis it becomes more important and particularly in Aberdeenshire, where it accounts for 3% of the region's GDP . In total, 49% by weight (45% by value) of all Scottish fish landings are made in the three main ports of the North East of Scotland, Aberdeen, Fraserburgh and Peterhead . Employment in fishing (marine capture fisheries composed of demersal, pelagic and shellfish sectors), is concentrated in the North Eastern region and the Highlands and Islands (this region includes the Shetland Islands), with each of those areas accounting for approximately 40% of the total workforce . The majority of vessels in the North East are over 15 m in length compared to those in Highlands and Islands (West coast of Scotland and Scottish islands) which have over 70% of its fleet consisting of boats less than 10 m. The North Eastern region also has a sizeable supply and services industry, valued at approximately 37 million Euros—largely from shipbuilding and net making. In addition, around 45% of employment and value added is in fish processing . Although the Highlands and Islands have a level of employment in fish catching similar to that in the North East, the value-added is about half as much, due largely to the different fleet structures. In contrast, the Highlands and Islands have over 90% of total jobs and value-added in the aquaculture sector linked to a significant processing sector. When comparing labour economies, the Shetland Islands are much smaller with a workforce and population about one-seventh of that in the North Eastern region. However, fishing-related activities play a major role in the island's economy because of its isolated geographical position and limited opportunities for diversification into some sectors. The fishing fleet is dominated with small boats less than 10 m in length. These values illustrate the socio-economic importance of the fishing sector to Scotland, particularly in areas where their remoteness limits diversification into other sectors. The Scottish fishing fleet has been steadily declining over the past 10 years (see Table 1) and at the end of 2003, there were 763 active Scottish-based over-10 m vessels . This trend is mainly due to the introduction of decommissioning schemes). However, the average tonnage and power of a vessel has continued to increase (Table 1). The reduction in vessel numbers will continue and a common complaint made by fishermen is that compensation offered to them to decommission their vessels has led to a shortfall in allowing them to offset their debts incurred . In response to this, the Scottish Executive announced in January 2003, a financial aid package worth 70 million Euros to assist Scotland's fishing communities—56 million Euros have been set aside to facilitate a more acceptable decommissioning scheme and the remaining 14 million Euros allocated to facilitate transition of the industry into a new phase of development. Further financial assistance (4.5 million Euros) aimed at modernising the fisheries and aquacultures sectors was announced in February 2003. In 2005, grants totalling 6.8 million Euros from the Scottish Executive and the EU Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance programme has been committed to over 80 projects ranging from modernising fishing vessels, to harbour refurbishment and business start-up. This funding is expected to trigger a further 23.6 million Euros in private investment.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The findings from the two case studies highlight the importance of identifying and understanding the functions of cultural, economic, environmental, scientific and social issues that impact coastal communities. Many studies examining development opportunities in particular areas tend to rely on easily measurable quantitative indicators, such as changes in employment and income. However, understanding stakeholders attitudes, behaviour, perceptions and priorities are key for informed strategic planning initiatives. Furthermore, both landward (e.g. human settlements) and seaward (e.g. fish stocks) factors need to be examined together and not in isolation. Through exploring these issues and factors, it is possible to inform policy-making and practical implementation measures, such as opportunities for economic diversification, that could support the future sustainable development of communities socially economically dependent on marine resources under threat, like many of those dependent on marine fish stocks around the world. Innovative and well-researched diversification options that are based on a thorough understanding of local characteristics can counteract pressures such as economic competition, social instability and unemployment. This is fundamental to attaining long-term sustainable livelihoods which in turn will support viable industries and help build stronger communities. Success in achieving this goal relies on encouraging and maintaining involvement of all parties concerned and interested. This is a pre-requisite for developing effective and meaningful policy and implementation options such as is advocated by the principles of ICZM , ,  and .