دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 26244
عنوان فارسی مقاله

افزایش سرعت انتقال و انتشار فن آوری های ذخیره انرژی بخش تجربی فولاد — درس های آموخته شده

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
26244 2011 9 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
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عنوان انگلیسی
Accelerating the transfer and diffusion of energy saving technologies steel sector experience—Lessons learned
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 39, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 1296–1304

کلمات کلیدی
' ابتکار عمل داوطلبانه صنعت - همکاری بین المللی - بهره وری انرژی
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله افزایش سرعت انتقال و انتشار فن آوری های ذخیره انرژی بخش تجربی فولاد — درس های آموخته شده

چکیده انگلیسی

It is imperative to tackle the issue globally mobilizing all available policies and measures. One of the important ones among them is technology transfer and diffusion. By utilizing international co-operation, industry can promote such measures in two ways: through government policy and through industry's own voluntary initiative. Needless to say, various government policies and measures play essential role. By the same token, industry initiative can complement them. There is much literature documenting the former. On the contrary there are few on the latter. This paper sheds light on the latter. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of global voluntary sectoral approach for technology diffusion and transfer based on steel sector experience. The goal is to contribute toward building a worldwide low-carbon society by manufacturing goods with less energy through international cooperation of each sector. The authors believe that the voluntary sectoral approach is an effective method with political and practical feasibilities, and hope to see the continued growth of more initiatives based on this approach.

مقدمه انگلیسی

The 15th Conference of Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Copenhagen in December 2009 revealed how difficult it is to formulate an international agreement for coping with climate change. Nevertheless, it is imperative to tackle the issue globally mobilizing all available policies and measures. One of the important ones among them is technology transfer and diffusion. By utilizing international co-operation, industry can promote such measures in two ways: through government policy and through industry's own voluntary initiative. Needless to say, various government policies and measures play essential role. By the same token, industry initiative can complement them. There is much literature documenting the former. On the contrary there are few on the latter. This paper sheds light on the latter. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of global voluntary sectoral approach for technology diffusion and transfer based on steel sector experience. Section 2 reviews the steel industry's challenge and the promotion of international cooperation in the field of climate change. Section 3 summarizes the potential CO2 reduction from the diffusion of technology. The following section reviews the barriers to the diffusion of technologies. In the section 5, case studies for removing barriers are discussed. In the section 6, policies and technology development/transfers are discussed. Section 7 is for the conclusion.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

Through discussions in this paper, pros and cons in sectoral voluntary approach has become apparent. This approach should be applied as one of the several measures taken to compliment other policies. In view of the fact that there are few studies on this approach, however, the authors have tried to draw readers' and policymakers' attention to the importance of voluntary sectoral approach based on the steel industry's actual experience in various international forums. The success of the approach will depend on the four factors discussed below, which can be applied to other industries. First is the sharing of information. Companies must make information about established technologies (best available technologies and best practices) readily available. Accessibility to information about the latest development is also imperative. For example, all companies must follow benchmarks that use common definitions for diffusion ratio, unit energy consumption and other parameters. This category should also include identifying any barriers to the widespread implementation of technologies and determining the potential for reducing CO2 emissions. Second is the establishment of challenging numerical targets on a voluntary basis. These targets should include intensity goals as well as goals for the diffusion rate of technologies. Third is to utilize communications, especially among experts, promoting more widespread use of technologies to achieve the set targets. For example, engineers from many countries should create a forum to evaluate existing technologies, and to encourage the implementation of more advanced technologies. Model projects could be conducted if necessary. Fourth is the setting up and sharing of, a common long-term vision. Companies would need to follow a unified program for developing innovative technologies (such as participation in the “worldsteel” CO2 Breakthrough Program). The authors would like to add a word about international standardization here. Creating a database is one of the most critical elements of the voluntary industry sectoral approach. This information must be collected using indicators based on a single set of definitions. The database can then serve as the foundation for subsequent steps, such as the determination of targets. An agreement has been reached at “worldsteel” to move ahead with international standards (ISO) for indicators based on unified definitions and for the methods used in calculating those indicators. Concrete activities have already been initiated. If this is successful, the voluntary sectoral approach will not be an activity confined to a single sector. Instead, the success of these activities will prove that the voluntary sectoral approach can gain worldwide acceptance across many industries. In closing, we must not forget the true significance of the approach. The goal is to contribute toward building a worldwide low-carbon society by manufacturing goods with less energy through international co-operation of each sector. Since 2007, engineers from Japan have frequently visited steelworks in China and India to assist in the adoption of new technologies under the APP scheme. Some steelworks have already voluntarily decided to construct facilities that will utilize the recommended technologies. For these reasons, the authors believe that the voluntary sectoral approach is an effective method with political and practical feasibilities and hope to see the continued growth of more initiatives based on this approach.

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