ارزیابی ذخیره انرژی چین و کاهش انتشارات دستاورد ها و فرصت ها در طول یازدهمین برنامه پنج ساله
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|26245||2011||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12942 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 39, Issue 4, April 2011, Pages 2165–2178
From 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). With a dramatic reversal of this historic relationship, energy intensity increased 5% per year during 2002–2005. China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP) set a target of reducing energy intensity by 20% by 2010. This paper assesses selected policies and programs that China has instituted to fulfill the national goal, finding that China made substantial progress and many of the energy-efficiency programs appear to be on track to meet – or in some cases exceed – their energy-saving targets. Most of the Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program will meet or surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program has become very robust. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energy standards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal of adjusting China's economic structure, are failing. It is important to maintain and strengthen the existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising programs or adding new policy mechanisms to improve the programs that are not on track to achieve the stated goals.
From 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). Government policies and programs implemented during this period focused on strict oversight of industrial energy use, financial incentives for energy-efficiency investments, provision of information and other energy-efficiency services through over 200 energy conservation service centers spread throughout China, energy-efficiency education and training, and research, development, and demonstration programs (Sinton et al., 1998, Sinton et al., 1999, Sinton and Fridley, 2000 and Wang et al., 1995). Since energy demand grew less than half as fast as GDP, the need for investment in energy supply was reduced and capital could be used for other investments that supported important social goals. With a dramatic reversal of the historic relationship between energy use and GDP growth, energy use per unit of GDP increased an average of 5% per year during the period 2002–2005 (NBS, various years).1 Senior members of the government called on China to reduce energy intensity by 20% in five years in order to regain the relationship between energy and GDP growth experienced during the 1980s and 1990s. China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), which covers the period 2006–2010, required all government divisions at different levels to ensure the achievement of this binding energy conservation target and established specific energy-efficiency targets for electricity generation, selected industrial processes, appliances, and transport. This paper2 provides an assessment of selected policies and programs that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal of a 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010.3 It begins with an overall assessment of the energy use and energy savings achieved through 2008. Next, the relative contributions of activity increases and energy intensity improvements are assessed. Specific policies are then evaluated in terms of energy savings and accomplishment of stated policy goals. Where applicable, Chinese policies and programs are compared to similar programs found in other countries. Finally, recommendations regarding possible improvements to the current policies and programs are provided and additional recommendations are made for possible energy-saving activities in the 12th FYP.