تقابل اثر متقابل رفتار بداهه با خوداثربخشی کارآفرینی در عملکرد سرمایه گذاری های جدید و کارآفرین رضایت از کار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|26261||2008||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Venturing, Volume 23, Issue 4, July 2008, Pages 482–496
Although improvisation is often considered to be an elemental component of entrepreneurship, little work has been done to evaluate factors that influence the relationship of entrepreneur improvisational behavior with important outcome variables. In an attempt to partly fill this gap, the current study examines the moderating effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the relationship of founders' improvisational behavior with both the performance of their startups and their individual level of work satisfaction using a national (United States) random sample of 159 entrepreneurs. In alignment with our predictions, improvisational behavior was found to have a positive relationship with new venture performance (i.e., sales growth) when exhibited by founders who were high in entrepreneurial self-efficacy, whereas improvisational behavior was found to have a negative relationship with new venture performance when exhibited by founders who were low in entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial self-efficacy was found to have a negative moderating effect on the relationship between entrepreneur improvisational behavior and work satisfaction.
Recently it has been suggested by several authors that the entrepreneurial process might be best viewed as an improvisational activity (Baker et al., 2003, Baker and Nelson, 2005, Hmieleski and Corbett, 2006, Miner et al., 2001 and Weick, 2002). Perhaps the most appealing aspect of this perspective is that improvisation blends together both planned and emergent behavior (Cunha et al., 2003 and Weick, 1998). It is clear that new ventures almost always begin with a goal or vision of some form, implying an initial rational outlook (Baum et al., 1998 and Shane and Venkataraman, 2000). In this regard, new venture creation — much like improvisation — is a deliberate and intentional process (Bird, 1992 and Krueger et al., 2000). Inevitably, however, environmental conditions, resource constraints and cognitive limitations almost always prevent entrepreneurs from executing their plans as initially intended (Baker et al., 2003 and Baron, 1998). This implies that entrepreneurs must be able to effectively deviate from their plans in order to adapt to their environmental conditions, which in many cases are changing both quickly and unpredictably (Hmieleski and Ensley, 2004). Therefore, the ability to extemporaneously create and execute new plans on the fly would seem to be an important ability for entrepreneurs to possess. Research by Baker et al. (2003) drives home this point by demonstrating that new venture founders are often forced to make decisions extemporaneously, using only the resources available to them in the moment. This does not imply that improvisational behavior will always result in positive outcomes for entrepreneurs or the new ventures that they lead. As has been noted by many authors, improvisation is not inherently good or bad (Crossan et al., 2005 and Crossan and Sorrenti, 1997; Vera and Crosson, 2005). Instead, the effects of entrepreneur improvisational behavior are likely to be moderated by context specific factors. The current study makes the case for entrepreneurial self-efficacy as a particularly important moderating variable. In so doing, we examine the moderating effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the relationship of entrepreneurs' improvisational behavior with both the performance of their new ventures and the perceived level of their work satisfaction. These are important outcomes because the pace of change in today's markets (Drucker, 1992 and Foster and Kaplan, 2001) and the pressure placed upon decision-makers to move quickly (Baron, 1998) are likely to affect both firm performance and entrepreneurs' satisfaction with their work (Brigham and DeCastro, 2003). Our review of the literature suggests that this is the first study to link improvisational behavior to measures of firm performance and work satisfaction. Over the past decade a burgeoning literature has evolved that connects improvisation to organizational processes. This research has extended our understanding of the role of improvisation within organizations by examining it with respect to innovation (Akgun et al., 2002, Eisenhardt and Tabrizi, 1995, Miner et al., 2001, Moorman and Miner, 1998b and Vera and Crosson, 2005), learning (Miner et al., 2001 and Vera and Crosson, 2005), and organizational change (Brown and Eisenhardt, 1997, Cunha and Cunha, 2003 and Orlikowski, 1996). To date, however, the literature has been relatively silent with respect to improvisation by top executives. This presents a critical gap in the literature, because these are the individuals who are likely to have the greatest impact on the performance of their firms (Hambrick and Mason, 1984). Further, although the relationship between improvisational behavior and satisfaction has been speculated about (Barrett, 1998, Hatch, 1999 and Kamoche et al., 2003), there is a dearth of empirical research on this relationship. This is an important point considering that individuals start new businesses primarily for intrinsic reasons, as opposed to extrinsic rewards (Cooper and Artz, 1995). Therefore, work satisfaction may be an even more important indicator of success for individual entrepreneurs than financial performance. After all, money is only a means through which one may potentially use in the pursuit of finding satisfaction. Lack of money is sure to reduce satisfaction if one's basic needs cannot be met, but excess amounts of money will not guarantee happiness (Diener and Seligman, 2004). Not surprisingly, the results of the current study fail to uncover a significant relationship between the financial performance of new ventures and the work satisfaction of their founders. In the following section, we review relevant literature on improvisational behavior. Afterward, the case is made in further detail for why entrepreneurial self-efficacy is likely to moderate the effects of improvisational behavior with both performance and satisfaction. Finally, the methodology and results of the study are reviewed, and the findings are discussed.