قابلیت های بازاریابی در حال توسعه برای ایجاد ارزش مشتری از طریق ادغام بازاریابی-فروش
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|26628||2006||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9976 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 35, Issue 8, November 2006, Pages 974–988
The capacity to create superior customer value stems from the marketing capabilities a company possesses. A considerable body of research has indicated that market oriented companies have distinctive marketing capabilities which lead to superior organizational performance. Although it has been widely recognized that the development of marketing capabilities requires the joint effort of Marketing and Sales departments, almost no attention has been devoted to investigating the integration of these two functions. This study reports on an exploratory effort to use the means–end theory in explaining Marketing–Sales integration. Findings show that Marketing–Sales integration is a multi-faceted construct made up of different components that impact different marketing capabilities and highlight its antecedents and consequences.
One of the cornerstones of modern marketing thought is that market oriented companies are better equipped to meet the generation of superior customer value and, as a consequence, to attain sustainable competitive advantage. Several studies show that market orientation is positively related to organizational performance (Jaworski and Kohli, 1993, Narver and Slater, 1990, Ruekert, 1992 and Slater and Narver, 1994). The ability to generate superior customer value is dependent on the availability of distinctive marketing capabilities (Day, 1994a, Hult and Ketchen, 2001, Slater and Narver, 1995 and Slater and Narver, 2000). Inter-functional relationships are at the basis of the market orientation construct. Narver and Slater (1990) consider inter-functional coordination as a component of the construct, whereas Kohli and Jaworski (1990) suggest that interdepartmental dynamics are an antecedent of market orientation. In short, market oriented companies are characterized by a high level of integration of market-related knowledge and skills. Prior research shows that knowledge and skills regarding market-related activities are spread throughout the organization, the highest concentration, as one would expect, in the two departments traditionally responsible for managing market relationships: Marketing and Sales (Homburg et al., 2000, Homburg et al., 1999, Krohmer et al., 2002, Rouziès et al., 2005 and Zoltners, 2004). Despite the fact that Marketing and Sales often share responsibility for many common activities, their rapport is not without problems (Anderson, 1996, Carpenter, 1992, Shocker et al., 1994 and Strahle et al., 1996). As a result, opportunities for a company to create superior customer value risk being seriously challenged. Even though the existing literature (Dewsnap and Jobber, 2000, Dewsnap and Jobber, 2002 and Rouziès et al., 2005) has contributed to enhancing our knowledge on Marketing–Sales integration, research in this area is still scarce. The purpose of this study is to explore the contribution of Marketing–Sales integration to the development of marketing capabilities, and, as a consequence, to the creation of superior value for the customer. In particular, our objectives are to better clarify and detail the integration construct; to investigate how Marketing–Sales integration can impact different marketing capabilities; and, finally, to identify potential antecedents which may foster Marketing–Sales integration. The article, therefore, is structured as follows. Firstly, a literature review on marketing capabilities and Marketing–Sales integration highlights the limitations of prior research regarding the contribution of the two departments (and their integration) to the creation of superior customer value. Secondly, our methodological approach is described and findings of the exploratory research on Marketing–Sales integration are presented and discussed. Lastly, a discussion of theoretical and managerial implications and possibilities for future research on the topic conclude the paper.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5.1. The nature of Marketing–Sales integration Previous research suggests that integration is a combination of interaction and collaboration (Kahn, 1996 and Kahn, 2001). In keeping with Dewsnap and Jobber (2000) and Rouziès et al. (2005) our findings highlight a more articulated nature of the integration construct. Communication and collaboration emerge as two components of the construct, whereas trust, motivation, commitment, mutual help, reduced inter-group conflict and positive organizational climate play a role as well. Communication appears as the central node in the network of concepts representing integration. Our findings reinforce the fact that effective communication between Marketing and Sales yields many positive outcomes including: stimulating confrontation, mutual understanding, collaboration and sharing. These, in turn, foster increased effectiveness and efficiency of market knowledge development and decision making, while supporting an organizational climate based on trust and cooperation, confirming prior research on Marketing interfaces with other functional units (Fisher et al., 1997, Kahn, 2001 and Maltz and Kohli, 1996). However, earlier research has yet to fully analyze the relationship between interaction and collaboration considering them as independent components of integration. Conversely, our results indicate that interaction – obtained through meetings, exchange of documents, use of ICT, etc. – brings about collaboration, so that its role as antecedent of collaboration might be advanced. Other findings suggest that the definition of integration referred only to marketing and sales activities ( Rouziès et al. 2005) is too limited. Respondents, in fact, also mention sharing of goals and resources and sharing of strategies and plans, giving emphasis to the fact that integration can be achieved at different organizational levels: from bottom-line activities to strategic decision-making and long-term investments decisions. 5.2. Marketing–Sales integration and marketing capabilities An analysis of the dominant chains of the HVM provides some insight into the contribution integrating the two departments has on the development of marketing capabilities. The first dominant chain (Fig. 2a) suggests that market sensing and market based generative learning are enriched. As Day (1994b) suggests, continuous learning about markets requires widespread information distribution and mutually informed mental models. Increased communication between Marketing and Sales helps ensure the confrontation of different thought worlds so that mental models of both parties are challenged and functional oversimplification of market representations can be avoided. Moreover, by dismantling the systematic or structural constraints on information flows between the two departments, shared interpretation of information can emerge bringing about generative learning. Generative learning is different from adaptive learning (Senge, 1990, Sinkula, 1994 and Slater and Narver, 1995) in so far as the latter occurs within the actual knowledge base of the organization, whereas the former challenges long-held beliefs allowing the organization to have a broader perspective about its markets. As a consequence, generative learning improves the effectiveness of marketing decisions contributing to company success via the ability to sense and anticipate future market trends ahead of its competitors (Day, 1994a and Weerawardena, 2003b). The second dominant chain (Fig. 2b) suggests that Marketing–Sales integration contributes to market-based adaptive learning and customer linking. In fact, increased communication allows both parties to create a common vision of the market and strategies as well as plans are therefore shared accordingly (Kahn, 2001 and Slater and Narver, 1995). Improved alignment between the two functions fosters efficient decision-making processes by means of heightened consistency and synergy. This evidence is strengthened by prior research on customer relationship management, where the positive effect of integrated interfunctional efforts for strategic account management (Workman et al., 2003) and relationship selling (Weitz & Bradford, 1999) is emphasized. The customer linking capability, as discussed in Day (1994a), suggests that improvements can be developed by means of cross-functional Marketing–Sales coordination and information sharing that focuses on a common vision as to which customers to serve and which quality standards to provide. The ability to create long-lasting relationships with customers depends on the consistency of marketing and sales strategies as well as objectives along the product life cycle (Strahle et al., 1996) and the coordination of communication and promotional investments/strategies (Cespedes, 1993). The third dominant chain (Fig. 2c) displays another contribution of Marketing–Sales integration to marketing capabilities. As suggested by Kahn and colleagues (Kahn, 1996, Kahn, 2001 and Kahn and Mentzer, 1998), communication and mutual understanding are two main components of interdepartmental integration. Our findings suggest that Marketing–Sales integration generates customer value by means of increased organizational citizenship (see Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine, & Bachrach, 2000, for a review). In fact, helping behavior is a type of citizenship behavior, defined as “voluntarily helping others with, or preventing the occurrence of, work-related problems” (Podsakoff et al., 2000: 516). As posited in prior research on the topic, organizational citizenship behavior enhances customer satisfaction by stimulating constructive suggestions about how to improve a company's value proposition (Waltz & Niehoff, 1996). Again, this is yet another example of the contribution of Marketing–Sales integration to the development of market sensing capabilities. Several studies demonstrate that the integration of salespeople in marketing decision-making contributes to an increased organizational effectiveness in solving customer problems and enhancing customer satisfaction. Good examples of this are provided by Lambert, Marmorstein, and Sharma (1990), who focus on the fundamental role played by the sales force in getting information from the market, von Hippel (1989), who emphasizes the insights that salespeople get by interacting with lead users, and Weitz and Bradford (1999), who claim the need to involve the Sales department in decisions regarding customer service since part of this service is actually provided by the sales force. The fourth dominant chain (Fig. 2d) shows that integration between Marketing and Sales departments fosters the creation of an organizational climate typical of learning organizations, hence giving more emphasis to the market-based learning capability contribution. In fact, as suggested by Slater and Narver (1995), learning organizations are characterized by organic structures (cf. Burns & Stalker, 1961), whose main features are: recognition of interdependence, information sharing, cooperation and commitment. Studies on market orientation (Jaworski and Kohli, 1993 and Kohli and Jaworski, 1990) posit that the typical processes of market oriented companies – e.g. effective marketing intelligence dissemination and organizational responsiveness – have a positive impact on employee satisfaction. Our findings confirm this theory. Similarly, research on procedural justice in organizations (see Konowsky, 2000 for a review) also provides support for our findings. In fact, communication and collaboration are perceived to be opportunities to increase informational justice (Greenberg, 1993) – that is, provide adequate explanations related to decisions made – a component of procedural justice. Prior research (Konowsky, 2000) suggests that perceptions of procedural justice strongly impact commitment and trust, and, as a consequence, employee satisfaction. Therefore, again, Marketing–Sales integration contributes to the creation of an organizational context supporting market-based organizational learning. 5.3. Antecedents and consequences of Marketing–Sales integration The literature highlights the importance of integration mechanisms to reduce intra-organizational conflicts and achieve interdepartmental integration (e.g. Maltz, 1997, Maltz and Kohli, 2000 and Rouziès et al., 2005), but an empirical examination of how these mechanisms function in Marketing–Sales relationships is almost non-existent. Our study begins to shed some light on this topic, hopefully contributing to “a better understanding of the social psychological determinants and effects of relations between Marketing and Sales [which] will lead managers to design and institute organizational designs and human resources policies so as to minimise any negative inter-group effects” (Dewsnap & Jobber, 2002: 875). Findings show that different integrating mechanisms have differential effects on specific integration components. For example, job rotation impacts mutual understanding (a component of collaboration), whereas training and organizational structure impact mutual understanding and communication albeit differently. As for the consequences of Marketing–Sales integration our findings begin making progress on the managerial perceptions of customer value creation to some extent. Customer value creation is interpreted by respondents as the ability to solve customer problems by means of better knowledge and a broader perspective of the market, which allow companies to make better decisions and innovate. Marketing–Sales integration emerges as a company key capability contributing to the generation of customer value. These findings broaden general definitions of customer value such as the customer's perceptions of the benefits enjoyed versus costs incurred in buying products or, more simply, what you get for what you pay (e.g. Ulaga, 2001, Ulaga and Chacour, 2001 and Walter et al., 2001). In fact, they suggest that customers value the seller firm's flexibility and responsiveness (e.g. Lapierre, 2000) and anticipate expectations about future performance of the relationship (Ravald & Grönroos, 1996), hence the perceived supplier's ability to innovate also plays a very relevant role.