نفوذ ذینفعان بر اتخاذ فن آوری های صرفه جویی انرژی در خانه های ایتالیایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|26923||2013||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 60, September 2013, Pages 520–530
The instability and fragmentation of the temporary aggregations of many stakeholders in construction processes are barriers to adopting new technologies. This paper investigates the influence of different stakeholders on the adoption of mature energy-saving technologies in new residential buildings. Recent literature about the influence of different stakeholders on construction processes is reviewed focusing in their interest for energy saving technologies. To gain an insight into the specific roles played by stakeholders (general contractors, construction firms, architects, users and public governments) in different projects, a case study methodology was used. The influence on the adoption of energy-saving technologies of stakeholders was assessed through semi-structured interviews. These interviews focused on the interest and power for the adoption of several energy-saving technologies. Having recognized that the interest in adoption is often expressed late in the construction processes, the time of introduction of this interest was assessed. This paper provides an empirical insight into significant barriers for the adoption of energy saving technologies which are the low influence of highly motivated stakeholders on the decision of adoption, and the delay at which the interest in energy-saving technologies emerges. Finally, policies to overcome these barriers are suggested.
Increasing attention to sustainability has led to policies and regulations that promote green technologies in construction worldwide. In particular, energy efficient buildings are more and more considered a priority to create a sustainable world. This attention for the building sector arises from its energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission which, in developed countries, represent 30% and 40% of total quantities, respectively. Moreover, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the building sector has higher energy and pollution reduction potentials than any other sector (IPCC, 2007; GhaffarianHoseini et al., 2013). Although many policies encourage the adoption of energy-saving technologies in constructions, the rates of adoption are still low (Manseau and Shields, 2005, Beerepoot and Beerepoot, 2007 and WBSCD, 2009). Several reasons have been given for this, such as the high risk in case of failure of the innovation and the cultural stability of the building image (Vermeulen and Hovens, 2006 and Häkkinen and Belloni, 2011). Moreover, it is widely recognized that the construction sector differs from other sectors because its products are unique, expensive, lasting and fixed, whereas its processes are unstable, fragmentary and deprived of a continuous flow (Gluch, 2005 and Berardi, 2013). A main barrier for the adoption of innovations is hence represented by the structure of the construction sector, which is based on the temporary network of many people who collaborate side by side on a single project (Anumba et al., 2005). Finally, the most common barrier to the adoption of energy-saving technologies is the contrasting priorities among stakeholders (de Blois et al., 2011). The main example of this is represented by the low interest of the builders to invest in energy-saving technologies (Albino and Berardi, 2012). One reason for this is that the main benefit for the adoption is for the end-user of the building, whereas the building promoter rarely recalizes advantages (Pinkse and Dommisse, 2009). However, several experiences contradict this simple picture. Studies have shown that technical and economic potential for the adoption of energy-saving technologies is quantifiable for every stakeholder (Cole, 2000 and Svenfelt et al., 2011). The influence of stakeholders on more efficient construction has shown contrasting results. Lack of cooperation in the supply chain and inadequate support from governments have constituted important barriers for energy efficient choices (Lutzenhiser, 1994 and Häkkinen and Belloni, 2011). Lack of stakeholders with know-how and modest demand are other common barriers to energy efficiency (Runhaar et al., 2008). However, strong support from engaged stakeholders has sometimes been a driver for spurring this transformation (Andrews and Krogmann, 2009 and Lee and Yao, 2013). For example, institutional customers, such as social housing organizations, generally support the adoption of green technologies in homes (Brown and Vergragt, 2008). Contrasting examples have led to a questioning of what influence stakeholders have on the adoption of energy-saving technologies. This paper aims to determine which influences different stakeholders have on the adoption of mature energy-saving technologies; doing this, it shows in the context of analysis which policies should be promoted to overcome barriers related to the reduced influence on the adoption of mature energy-saving technologies. Christie et al. (2011) explained the failure in the diffusion of energy-saving innovations through the limits of economic optimization and technology innovation rationality. This happens because choices and decisions are always socially embedded and strongly influenced by cultural, personal and institutional constrains (Gaps, 1998 and DeCanio, 1998). The scope of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the influence of construction stakeholders over the adoption of energy-saving technologies in buildings. Moreover, this paper aims at presenting a methodology which can be used for monitoring the influence, interest and power of construction stakeholders during the building processes. The main hypothesis of this research is that the diffusion of energy-saving technologies is slowed by the late participation in the construction process of the stakeholders who have the greatest interest. Consequently, most of the choices related to construction are made by stakeholders with low motivation for the adoption of energy-saving technologies and high power to impose their will. Finally, this paper aims to identify stakeholders with the potential to push the adoption of energy-saving technologies and conditions which encourage these stakeholders to act. The present study focuses on residential buildings, as these represent the large majority of buildings. For example, in Europe, the residential building stock is 75% of the total (Eurostat, 2010), and it still accounts for a significant part of the annual investment of the construction sector (Eurostat, 2010). The European building sector is currently facing the requirements given the 2010/31/EU Directive, which aims to build only nearly zero energy buildings after 2020 (Directive 2010/31/EU. For example, the UK Government has recently revised building regulations towards the target of “zero carbon” new homes from 2016, and many other countries are acting similarly (Annunziata et al., 2013). However, the levels of compliance with energy regulations in new buildings are still poor. A recent research has shown that in England and Wales, the compliance with the code is below 35% (Pan and Garmston, 2012). Thinking that across Italy new residential buildings still have energy consumption for heating and hot water of 84 kW h/m2y on average (Eurostat, 2010), it is clear that a big gap exists with the target to be achieved in next few years. This highlights the urgency to investigate factors which can facilitate the adoption of energy-saving technologies. This paper focuses on medium-sized projects (projects which have fewer than 100 dwellings according Eurostat) because these have been shown to be particularly resistant towards the adoption of energy-saving technologies (Williams and Dair, 2007 and Nemry et al., 2010). Medium-size projects have large difficulties in becoming more efficient given the lack of home-buyer demand and of economy of scale in case of adoption (Lutzenhiser, 1994, Williams and Dair, 2007 and Hauge et al., 2012). The present study only regards new construction, and although the methodology presented in Section 2 could be applied in case of renovations, the conclusions of the study may not be extended to these last. Aspects related to stakeholder participation in construction processes, their decision-making process, subjective preference and adoption of energy-saving technologies are combined here. The following section describes the construction process as a network of stakeholders. This involves the identification of the stakeholders, together with the analysis of their power and interest. The section also analyzes the construction process along the time dimension and reviews stakeholders’ motivations towards the adoption of energy-saving technologies. Section three reports the empirical research of previous discussions in two case studies: stakeholders are indicated and interviewed to measure their power and interest for adopting energy-saving technologies. Section four discusses the results of the analysis and the efficacy of current policies for the adoption of energy-saving technologies. The final section draws concluding remarks and makes suggestions to incentivize energy-saving technologies in the building sector.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has presented a methodology to assess a main barrier for the adoption of energy-saving technologies in the construction sector: stakeholders with power to select these technologies often have no interest in their adoption. This barrier was found in the case studies, where the high uncertainty and the lack of information and communication among stakeholders often increased the reluctance for the adoption of energy-saving technologies. Moreover, in the context of analysis, it has emerged that local municipalities are making a poor effort to promote diffusion of energy-saving technologies and in this way, they are reducing the possible impact of policies promoted by international boards, and national or regional governments. In the case studies, the interest of the local government in adopting energy-saving technologies was limited, whereas it mainly focused on legal and administrative aspects. The disconnection between national and local governments merits particular attention in future policies. The analysis and comparison between case studies has also shown that the assessment of the influence of different stakeholders on the adoption of technologies is variable and case sensitive. The paper has looked at two case studies in new buildings in Italy only. Although these were representative of a considerable part of the Italian new building sector, it is evident that location, local and national laws and available information to different stakeholders are variable beyond the context of analysis. The study suggests that for the promotion of energy-saving technologies, it is necessary to favour more integrated relationships between construction stakeholders and to increase circumstances for market demand of energy-saving technologies. In particular, process organizations and policies which increase final users’ power and increase the interest in efficient adoptions should be supported. Social housing organizations have shown more ability than speculative firms because the power of the final users is higher and their interest emerges earlier. It is hence crucial to increase the occasions for material suppliers and subcontractors to show innovative technologies to design teams and, above all, directly to users. This would increase the market demand for them and would help in educating the buyers of new buildings. This is a necessary step to move the construction sector to a more qualified market demand base. Future research should focus on an in-depth analysis of differences among technologies to investigate the will of stakeholders to adopt them. Extending findings of this study to other contexts (other countries and other typologies of buildings) remains necessary.