رابطه حرفه ای، پاداش ها، جهت گیری بازار و رضایت شغلی کارکنان علوم پزشکی: مورد گواهى شده پرستار-ماما
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|27023||2004||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 57, Issue 9, September 2004, Pages 1042–1053
A model considers the impact of professionalism, market orientation and reward structure on job satisfaction of Certified Nurse–Midwives (CNMs). Structural equation modeling methods are used to examine data collected from these health care providers. The results indicate professionalism and rewards are positively related to job satisfaction. Professionalism and rewards were found to be positively correlated with market orientation. In turn, rewards were found to be strongly and positively related to professionalism. In addition, market orientation was found to be strongly and positively related to job satisfaction.
Effective marketing practice begins with the acceptance of the marketing concept. To create and set in motion marketing activities without adoption of the marketing concept is not considered marketing Joseph, 1996 and Trustrum, 1989. When the marketing concept is implemented, an organization is said to have a market orientation. A market orientation is defined as either a set of organizational values or continuous processes vital to the creation of goods and services of superior value offered to customers Kohli and Jaworski, 1990, Narver and Slater, 1990 and Ruekert, 1992. Studies show a market orientation is associated with organizational success. For example, Narver and Slater (1990) found a positive relationship between market orientation and return on assets. Deshpande et al. (1993) demonstrate market-oriented organizations perform better in terms of market share, sales turnover, growth rate and profitability than other organizational types. Ruekert (1992) found market orientation positively related to long-run financial success, employee job satisfaction and trust in management. Raju et al. (1995) established that a market orientation is significantly related to selected performance dimensions in hospitals. Webb et al. (2000) found a positive correlation between market orientation and both customer satisfaction and service quality. Other works illustrate a market orientation is related to on-time delivery, product durability, sales growth, market share, profitability, job satisfaction and customer satisfaction Liu, 1995, Tansuhaj et al., 1988, Tansuhaj et al., 1991 and Wright et al., 1997. With such evidence, one assumes employees accept and embrace the marketing concept. In service organizations, professionals are perceived as a different kind of worker due to the tasks performed and their associated social beliefs and behaviors Cullen, 1978, Bywaters, 1991 and Wallace, 1995. Behaviors and beliefs include a high level of expertise, freedom to manage the task, task commitment, identification with peers, an ethical system and a means to maintain standards (Raelin, 1986). Professional involvement normally includes associations that enhances commitment, encourages peer support, develops peer assessment and provides protection for their collective reputation. For example, the American Medical Association serves this function for physicians, while the American College of Nurse Midwives serves the identical function for Certified Nurse–Midwives (CNMs). In some settings, professionals have not embraced marketing and a market orientation since it challenges aspects of professionalism, especially job autonomy and freedom to develop and establish processes for the tasks performed Dawson, 1994, Morgan and Piercy, 1991 and Whittington and Whipp, 1992. Mayer (1997) emphasizes this point when he says that the most important organizational issue today is how can a modern society, deeply dependent on its professional class, assure itself that professional work—law, medicine, architecture, accountancy, engineering, teaching—will be done skillfully in the right quantities for the right reasons at the right price? In other words, how can we be sure professional service firms will be market-oriented, thereby creating the environment many feel essential for delivering customer value and consumer satisfaction? This study proposes and tests a conceptual framework that considers the impact of professionalism, market orientation and reward structure on job satisfaction for one group of medical professionals, CNMs. It also examines the relationship between rewards and professionalism. Section 2 develops the conceptual framework for this research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of this study is to examine the notion of market orientation in the context of a medical professional service. A conceptual model including market orientation, professionalism, rewards and job satisfaction is proposed and tested. The results support the relationships hypothesized in the model. The findings indicate that market orientation, defined as intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination and responsiveness, is a positive factor in the work environment of the medical professionals examined. Further, professionalism is positively related to job or work satisfaction. Professionalism is also positively related to market orientation. These results do not support the literature suggesting that professionalism often inhibits the implementation of the marketing concept in professional service organizations Dawson, 1994, Morgan and Piercy, 1991 and Whittington and Whipp, 1992. We found that rewards are more strongly related to professionalism than to job satisfaction, supporting the contention that job satisfaction for professionals is derived in part from the profession itself (Miner et al., 1994). Also, these finding support conclusions from recent research that professionalism can be enhanced by a reward system that reinforces professional behavior while increasing job satisfaction (Boyt et al., 2000). Results of the study imply that developing a market orientation for professionals has a positive impact on job satisfaction with a potential to lead to higher levels of customer or client satisfaction. Slater and Narver (1995) argued that a market orientation is the essence of organizational culture. In this study market orientation is positively related to the work environment of CNMs. While it may not be the essence of organizational culture in professional service organizations, market orientation certainly is compatible with professionalism in the sample studied. Even though a market orientation is an important indicator of organizational performance, some suggest that in professional organizations, a market orientation may be an inappropriate managerial philosophy Hampton, 1992, Harris, 1999, Robbins et al., 1988 and Stevens et al., 1990. In this regard, Hirschman (1983) contends that for certain products and services a market orientation is not appropriate because these organizations do not pursue their objectives through normal business practices. She emphasizes that personal values and social norms are more important. For professionals, these personal values and norms are likely derived from the profession and its professionalism. It is quite true that in service firms, professionals are the creators, producers and marketers of services. It is also acknowledged that professionals establish product or service standards that have specific, fixed product or service forms. Services, procedures and processes of health care professionals are often not designed based on information collected in consumer surveys, but are based on professional knowledge and skills. Yet, this does not mean that health care professionals do not respond to customer information or intelligence to assist in the development of products and services. After all, being a professional means being committed to the work that serves the client and accepting an obligation to render service without concern for self-interest Keer and Von Glinow, 1977 and Hall, 1968. These aspects of professionalism are externally oriented and seem congruent and complementary to the notion of market orientation. The results of this study lend support for this conclusion. In essence, both professionalism and market orientation have an external focus on the consumer, patient or client with the intent of providing valuable services that create satisfaction. These concepts are not adversaries, but operate more like partners in the service to consumers. Quinn et al. (1996) describe medical clinics as inverted organizations where the former line hierarchy is transformed into a support structure whose function is to support the professionals by removing barriers, expediting resources, conducting studies and acting as consultants. In this setting, the health care professionals possess most of the organization's store of knowledge, and act on their own to serve clients while adopting or customizing their knowledge and skills during patient or customer contact. In an inverted organization, an important goal is professional empowerment that comes from information (Quinn et al., 1996). Much of this information is about patients or clients, which of course comes from the organization embracing a market orientation. Under such circumstances, it should not be surprising to find a positive and significant relationship between professionalism and a market orientation.