مشارکت تامین کننده در توسعه محصول در صنعت الکترونیک : یک مطالعه موردی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|2704||2006||24 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Volume 23, Issue 4, December 2006, Pages 374–397
The movement of activities earlier in the product development process requires a re-examination of the total supply network. The objective of this paper is to determine the degree of early supplier involvement (ESI) that exists between a multinational electronics company and its key suppliers, in terms of depth of integration, information exchange and buyer–supplier relationships. The paper provides insights into the strategic factors that affect the dynamics of the ESI process. The research indicates that there are considerable impediments for those participants responsible for establishing and managing the implementation of ESI. A number of strategic insights are identified that explain the existence of the impediments to the ESI process. Finally, based upon the findings a number of lessons are highlighted for organisations considering the adoption of the ESI process.
During the past 15 years there has been a significant trend for firms and public organisations to externalise a wide range of functions that formerly might have been carried out in-house. Increasingly, business organisations are concentrating on core activities and outsourcing other functions to external suppliers (McIvor et al., 1997). This ranges from major manufacturers increasing the proportion of components and sub-assemblies designed by suppliers to the contracting out of functions such as computer services, R&D and accountancy. There are a number of reasons for this trend, including rising global competition, more rapid technical change and the need for the faster development of products with higher quality and reliability. It is virtually impossible for any one firm to possess all the technical expertise needed to develop a complex product. This means that organisations have to focus on their core competencies and for other activities to draw on the best expertise available world-wide. Thus, the traditional pattern of the large, vertically integrated business, is being replaced by one consisting of complex networks of collaborating organisations, and chains of buyers and suppliers (Roy and Potter, 1996). In this new industrial structure, the design and development of complex products is one of the activities that is being devolved back along the supply chain. The extent to which this occurs varies, with some manufacturers devolving most engineering design and development work to external suppliers. In other cases, there is often a mixed situation, in which the design of sub-assemblies and components are devolved to suppliers, or where in-house designers work closely with their suppliers to ensure that components of the required performance and quality are developed. It is therefore apparent that in this new structure, design and development not only has to be managed within one large organisation, but it also involves managing relationships between many companies in an extensive chain of buyers and suppliers (McIvor et al., 2000). The movement of activities earlier in the product development process requires a re-examination of the total supply network. Supply chain literature has traditionally examined procurement and value-adding activities, without explicitly defining product development as part of these. The literature on early supplier involvement in the design process typically focuses on the outputs (Kamath and Liker, 1994 and Brown and Eisenhardt, 1995). However, such research tends to exclude the actual dynamics and factors influencing the process of supplier integration, such as, the timing of supplier involvement, supplier design responsibility and buyer/supplier communication (Hartley et al., 1997a). This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of early supplier involvement (ESI) by analysing these influencing factors in the context of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and its key suppliers, using case study data collection. Findings from the literature regarding the impact of supplier integration in new product development are mixed. In order to employ this strategy and justify the considerable effort and costs required, the strategic factors affecting the dynamics of the ESI process and the potential impediments to its implementation must be better understood.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The findings highlight a number of lessons for organisations that are considering the adoption of ESI: • The changes effected by ESI strike at the very heart of the organisation and have implications for the way in which an organisation is structured, individual roles, responsibilities, reward systems and reporting relationships. The changes are systemic in that modification to structural arrangements for example, automatically has a knock-on effect upon individual roles, responsibilities, reward systems and reporting relationships. It is essential to ensure the adoption of a holistic approach to managing the entire process. • ESI requires a cultural change within the buyer and supplier organisation where there is enhanced understanding of the concept of collaboration. It is acknowledged that effecting culture change is often regarded as being a mammoth task, which is made even more difficult by the deeply embedded culture that has evolved over a long period of time. This problem is further exacerbated when trying to achieve cultural alignment among the supply chain members. • A culture in both the buyer and supplier organisation must exist in order to facilitate and encourage joint problem solving and decision making across intra-organisational boundaries. The findings have stressed the need for a culture that breaks down the internal barriers that exist within the traditional functional view of the firm. It is not enough to change the attitudes of the purchasing personnel but the attitudes of the other business functions and senior management must also be changed in the pursuit of collaborative buyer–supplier relations. It requires a culture permeating the organisation hierarchy that encourages and values collaboration. • Senior management has a critical role to play in facilitating ESI. Within the organisation at the core of this paper, strategy has been formulated by a small team of senior managers, more or less in isolation from those whose support is a vital ingredient for implementation. Furthermore, it has been formulated by a team who are often perceived to make decisions which display a lack of knowledge and understanding of working processes, practices and relationships throughout the organisation, or of the implications of their decisions in terms of support structures necessary to facilitate implementation. Thus, considering the inter- and intra-organisational implications of ESI, it is essential that organisations pursue a much more participative approach to the strategy making process. At the same time, senior management need to exercise what Brown and Eisenhardt (1995) describe as subtle control. This term refers to the ability of senior management to have the vision necessary to develop and communicate a distinctive, coherent concept of the product. In the case of product development, this means meshing firm competencies and strategies with the needs of the market to create an effective product idea. • When pursuing ESI it is essential to assess the impact that this will have upon those who will be most affected by it. Effective collaboration between individuals and groups places a new found emphasis upon skills that were not so necessary when engaging in the more traditional adversarial relationship. In particular, assessing the impact on those most affected by new developments is likely to reveal a need for training to permit skill acquisition and development in a variety of areas including team working, problem solving, negotiation and conflict management. • To achieve the benefits associated with ESI it is essential that all of those involved are committed to the strategy. This must be supported by an organisational programme which aims to enable individuals to acquire and develop skills, behaviours and attitudes which facilitate the implementation of strategy. It is essential that both the buyer and supplier organisations identify the range of skills, behaviours and attitudes, which are critical to support effective collaboration.