دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 27139
عنوان فارسی مقاله

تفاوت های جنسیتی در خود اشتغالی تمام وقت

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
27139 2000 15 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
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عنوان انگلیسی
Gender differences in full-time self-employment
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Journal of Economics and Business, Volume 52, Issue 6, November–December 2000, Pages 499–513

کلمات کلیدی
- خود اشتغالی - تفاوت های جنسیتی
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله تفاوت های جنسیتی در خود اشتغالی تمام وقت

چکیده انگلیسی

This analysis reveals interesting gender differences in full-time self-employment. Women who choose full-time self-employment have personal characteristics that are less highly valued in the marketplace than women who work full-time in wage-and-salary employment. The reverse is true for men. It is unclear whether the gender gap in self-employment income is the result of different supply decisions made by women, or greater constraints and/or discriminatory elements faced by women. There is some suggestion that women may place a higher value on nonwage aspects of self-employment than men do.

مقدمه انگلیسی

In this paper, gender differences in the propensity for self-employment (vs. wage-and-salary employment) and in the levels of earnings in each type of employment are investigated, using econometric techniques. It is found that women who choose self-employment have personal characteristics that are less highly valued by the market than women who choose wage-and-salary employment; the reverse is true for men. Certain personal characteristics appear to affect self-employment earnings differently for women than for men. It is unclear whether the resulting gender gap in self-employment earnings is the result of different supply decisions made by women or the result of greater constraints and/or discriminatory elements faced by women. Finally, the observed gender differences in the gap between self-employment earnings and potential wage-and-salary income suggest that self-employed women may place a higher value on the nonwage aspects of self-employment than self-employed men do. A review of the relevant literature is presented in Section II. A discussion of the methodology used in this paper is contained in III and IV provides a description of the data used, whereas the empirical findings are outlined in Section V. The main conclusions and implications of this research appear in Section VI.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

This investigation of full-time self-employment reveals interesting gender differences. First, there is a basic gender difference in the mechanism that guides the choice between self-employment and wage-and-salary employment for a full-time, full-year worker. Women who choose self-employment have personal characteristics that are less highly valued in the marketplace than women who choose wage-and-salary employment. The reverse is true for men. Second, certain personal characteristics affect self-employment earnings differently for women than for men. Being White and being married tend to have negative impacts on the earnings of self-employed women, whereas they have positive impacts on the earnings of self-employed men. Also, although aging tends to enhance the earnings of self-employed men, it erodes the earnings of self-employed women. It is unclear whether the resulting gender gap in self-employment earnings is the result of different supply decisions made by women or greater constraints and/or discriminatory elements faced by women. Third, although the self-employment earnings of both men and women fall short of their wage-and-salary income foregone, the magnitude of the shortfall is greater for women. For self-employment to be viewed as a rational unconstrained choice, there must be nonwage aspects of self-employment that justify the cost. The observed gender difference suggests that women may place a higher value on these nonwage aspects of self-employment than men do. As the self-employment of women continues to grow, there will be an opportunity to monitor these gender differences. It remains to be seen whether the rise in female self-employment will raise the relative economic status of women or increase the male/female earnings inequality.U S Department and Bureau of the 1993

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