برنامه ریزی فرایند انرژی کارآمد برای ماشینکاری CNC
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|27304||2012||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7690 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Volume 5, Issue 2, 2012, Pages 127–136
Machining is one of the major activities in manufacturing industries and is responsible for a significant portion of the total consumed energy in this sector. Performing machining processes with better energy efficiency will, therefore, significantly reduce the total industrial consumption of energy. In this paper, a framework is presented to validate the introduction of energy consumption in the objectives of process planning for CNC machining. The state of the art in process planning and energy consumption in manufacturing research is utilised as a basis for the framework. A mathematical representation of the logic used is presented followed by two sets of experiments on energy consumption in machining to validate the logic. It is shown that energy consumption can be added to multi-criteria process planning systems as a valid objective and the discussion on using resource models for energy consumption estimation concludes the paper. These experiments represent a part test procedure machining proposal for the new environmental machine standard ISO 14955 Part 3.
Over the last 100 years, manufacturing has been changing with paradigm shifts to support advances in technology and to meet the emerging cultural and societal needs. This has seen the industry move through a number of phases: craft production, mass production, flexible manufacturing and personalised design and manufacture . Today, a new industrial revolution is being conceived that will continue forever in the form of sustainable design and manufacture. This new revolution is starting to bring together new paradigm shifts from the early phase of energy conscious manufacturing to today's new vision for energy efficient production. The drivers for this vision are obvious with governments worldwide recognising that energy demands continue to increase, with the international energy agency predicting an increase of 1.5% each year from 2007 to 2030 ; with the prediction that emerging economies such as China and India will account for half of this increase. A UK government white paper from 2007 concurs this prediction that on the basis of present policies, global energy demand will be more than 50% higher in 2030 when compared to 2006, with energy related greenhouse gas emissions to be around 55% higher . Increased social awareness and scientific knowledge of energy usage resulting from the vast impact of the growing human population is increasingly forcing the regulatory bodies to encourage reduction of consumption in different sectors by different methods. These range from putting levies and taxes on the energy itself to introducing CO2 emission allowance for large industrial consumers . These regulations along with the high price of energy have provided a powerful incentive for research around the methods of reduction in energy consumption, especially in the highest consuming sectors. Manufacturing is a major contributor in relation to other sectors. For example, in the UK, “Machinery and equipment” has been responsible for 2.45% of industrial consumption and more than 0.50% of the total energy consumption of the country . As a result, energy related research is taking central stage in the European Commissions Framework 7 Manufacturing research programme termed Manufuture . Energy is having an impact on numerous research areas from Energy Efficient Buildings to Green Cars . At the forefront of the Manufuture vision is the Factories of the Future (FoF) initiative which is a €1.2 billion programme in which the European Commission and industry will support the development of new enabling technologies for EU manufacturing with cross-sector benefits and contributions to greener production. The EU Commission goal is to meet global consumer demand for greener, more customised and higher quality products through the transition to a demand-driven industry with lower waste generation and energy consumption . This paper considers the critical aspect of energy efficiency in manufacturing and in particular process planning of products. Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) has continued to be developed for over 40 years with its early origins dating back to the 1960s. The focus of much of this early work was in optimising the operation planning and costs of production processes based on process parameters such as spindle speeds, feeds, depth of cut, tool wear. Today's paradigm shift towards environmentally conscious production started with initial pioneering research in process planning, as early as 1995 by Sheng and Srinivasan . This work has had some sporadic further developments over the last 15 years but the growing cost of energy combined with today's sustainable drivers towards energy efficiency provide new opportunities for researchers and industry to develop new energy modelling software to support energy efficient manufacturing resources throughout their life cycle. This paper aims to explore these challenges and provide a framework as the basis for future developments in using current generation of resources more effectively in terms of energy usage. The paper is structured in 7 major sections. Following this introduction, a review of related literature in the area of energy consumption in machining is presented. A brief history of computer aided process planning, in general, and multi-criteria process planning, in particular, is provided which progresses to identify the environmentally conscious and green process planning and manufacture. A theoretical framework for energy efficient manufacturing is then provided, supported by a series of machining experiments on energy consumption in CNC machining. Finally the paper concludes with a discussion of the major aspects of the research and identifies avenues for further work.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Manufacturing is a major contributor to the industrial energy consumption which is predicted to increase in the next 30 years. This paper has identified: • The theoretical framework research provides a powerful basis for mathematical representation of energy efficiency for process planning. • The experiments show that the energy consumption of interchangeable machining processes can differ significantly, by at least 6% of the total energy consumption of the machine in low loads and is likely to grow to 40% at higher loads. Though, the authors have reviewed a significant body of research related to energy conscious and efficient in machining, there still exists enormous opportunities for energy modelling and analysis in other manufacturing processes and sectors. This requires both industry and government to jointly develop new legislation and standards focused on energy efficiency for manufacturing resources. One approach to support this view is provided by Rahimifard et al.  where they provide a detailed analysis of energy usage of products throughout the factory. Such approaches combined with new legislation and additional standards for energy efficiency for industrial buildings (factories) could form the next generation of world leading energy-independent factories, which will form a major part of the industrial revolution for reducing the global energy usage over the next 20 years.