رفتار مدیریتی ژاپن در برنامه ریزی استراتژیک: مورد تجزیه و تحلیل در زمینه های کسب و کار جهانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|27509||2004||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3860 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 57, Issue 3, March 2004, Pages 291–296
Although globalization urges corporations worldwide to pursue economic efficiency, culturally induced differences in corporate behavior persist in a globalized business world. This paper explores the behavior of Japanese corporations in this context. Interviews were conducted to investigate the internal decision-making process in major Japanese firms. Their outcome provides the basis for the following hypothesis: A unique characteristic of Japanese companies, which can be different from that of Western firms, is that they have similar managerial behavior with other Japanese companies in the same industry. The collectivity culture exists behind it. This hypothesis is attested by case analyses of historical events of two Japanese industries in the global market in the past half century. Japanese firms in the automotive and electronic industries exhibited similar behavior in their entries to foreign markets either in marketing or production.
Although globalization intensifies corporations' pursuit of economic efficiency, differences in corporate behavior induced by cultural factors cannot easily be changed and continue to affect the strategic planning of the world's large corporations. A comprehensive understanding of strategic behavior requires to identify the mechanisms that combine economic and cultural factors and influence corporate strategic behavior. This paper focuses on the relationships between the cultural factor and corporate behavior. In order to widen the perspectives of this discussion, the cases of Japanese corporations (otherwise), which can be influenced by a culture different from the Western one, will be analyzed in this paper. Although this discussion basically covers the whole scope of their behavior, the examination will be conducted in the global aspect of such behavior by analyzing their historical events. This analysis will eventually reveal the driving forces behind the Japanese economic expansion in the world market in the past half century.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As illustrated by the above historical events in the automotive and electric machinery industries, parallel managerial behavior is observed among Japanese companies in the same industry. Thus, these objective facts are considered to have provided sufficient evidence to support the hypothesis of this paper. Future research on this issue should include the following tasks: first, a further analysis to examine the wider scope of observable events in other time frames and space; second, an international comparative analysis of managerial behavior of the US and European firms in the same context as in this paper; finally, an analysis to predict whether or not Japanese managerial behavior will change in the future. Hofstede's (1980) survey indicates that the degree of individualism increases as national wealth increases. In this context, Japan, as its economic level goes up, has a possibility to decrease the degree of collectivism and, in this case, independence from other firms' decisions should increase. This may be gradually taking place. However, as observed in the recent investments in China, it is not changing yet. These days in Japan, several major electronics manufacturers are forming a few alliances that resemble each other's. All major Japanese commercial banks have reorganized themselves into a few but quite similar financial groups within the past 2 years. The reality today is that this hypothesis still works.