اثر کیفیت رابطه کاری در عملکرد فروشنده و رضایت شغلی: رفتار فروش تطبیقی در نمایندگان فروش خودرو کره
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|27586||2006||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 59, Issue 2, February 2006, Pages 204–213
The adaptive selling behavior (ASB) concept has been the focus of significant attention in research and practice alike over the past decade. However, there has been but a few studies that have investigated this practice outside of a U.S. context. Thus, as this research stream continues to take root, significant questions relating to ASB theory, conceptualization and measurement, and generalizability remain. Given this lack of non-Western ASB research, the authors consider the implications of national culture on ASB. Next, they develop and test a model utilizing a sample of Korean automobile representatives. Salesperson working relationship quality is suggested as mediating the ASB–performance relationship and a new outcome, job satisfaction, is identified. The results serve not only to clarify previously unclear relationships, but also extend our understanding of adaptive selling practices in non-Western cultures.
Since Weitz (1978) first posited the relationship between adaptive selling behavior (hereafter, ASB) and performance, ASB has drawn growing interest in research and practice alike (Sujan et al., 1994). However, of the more than 100 published empirical studies on ASB, the results of all but a small fraction are based on samples from the United States and other Western nations (Franke and Park, 2004). In countries like the United States, whose national culture is generally characterized by a high degree of individualism, neither buyers nor sellers are constrained by the need to conform to group norms (Hofstede, 1980). Similarly, in low uncertainty-avoidant Western cultures, customers and salespeople should be relatively more receptive to varied sales approaches. Given these predominant cultural characteristics, the role of ASB in driving superior sales performance in Western cultures is not surprising. What remains less clear is how salesperson adaptiveness might lead to favorable outcomes in countries with vastly dissimilar national cultures. While prior research has gauged the effects of national culture on innovation adoption (e.g., Van Everdingen and Waarts, 2003) and marketing decision making (e.g., Kogut and Singh, 1988 and Steenkamp et al., 1999), experts note that the manner by which exogenous factors such as national culture affect the responsiveness of businesses to their customers and markets is not well understood (Kohli and Jaworski, 1994). In considering the potential effects of culture on ASB, the extent to which salesperson adaptiveness is expected, or even welcomed, in all cultures is unknown. Assuming some level of adaptation is universally desired, it seems likely that that the manner by which salespeople adapt will vary across cultural contexts. For example, in more collectivist cultures, it may be necessary for salespeople to alter their presentation in such a way as to appeal more to the standards of the customer's in-group, as opposed to individual tastes. As the pace of globalization accelerates, questions regarding the portability of marketing constructs and measures take on mounting importance. Indeed, Steenkamp (2001) suggests, “the further advancement of marketing as an academic discipline requires that the validity of our theories and models be examined in other cultural settings as well as to identify their degree of generalizability and to uncover boundary conditions” (p. 30). Thus, confirming the cross-cultural generalizability of ASB remains a vital step in advancing this research stream. Our study makes headway in addressing this void by testing a model involving adaptive selling practices amongst Korean automobile salespeople. As South Korea's national culture is viewed as collectivistic and as having a low tolerance for ambiguity (Hofstede, 1980), it offers a stark contrast to prior ASB research, which has been conducted mainly in Western settings. In response to equivocal results of prior ASB–performance studies, we suggest that salesperson working relationship quality operates as a key mediating variable. We reason that while a salesperson may possess superior adaptive skills, the assistance of others is often required in fulfilling customer requirements, particularly in more complex sales. Thus, enhancements to overall performance resulting from increased ASB may be conditioned on the salesperson's corresponding ability to maintain high-quality working relationships with managers, peers, and administrative personnel. We believe that this effect should be accentuated given the collectivistic, uncertainty-avoidant nature of Korean culture. To our knowledge, no research has empirically examined the direct role of supervisor–subordinate relationship quality or the quality of other critical employee work relationships within an ASB framework. Additionally, we fill a notable gap in the literature by testing the relationship between ASB and a previously unpublished outcome: job satisfaction. The remainder of this paper proceeds as follows. First, we discuss the conceptual origins of ASB and consider the potential influence of culture upon adaptive sales practices. Second, a theoretical model is developed, stressing the importance of working relationship quality in implementing ASB practices. Third, we detail the research methods utilized in our study, including a brief summation of our context, data collection, and measures. Fourth, the model's overall fit and each of our hypotheses are tested via a structural equation model. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the findings as well as its managerial and theoretical implications. Directions for new ASB research are suggested.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In conclusion, it is hoped that this research contributes to both academicians and business practitioners by improving our understanding of ASB. By examining outcomes and mediating variable of ASB, this study offers a holistic approach to effective salesperson behavior. It is evident that relationship quality is important and is a key to increase sales performance as well as job satisfaction. Management therefore should encourage the practice of ASB in order to maximize retention and organizational performance. Despite the progress and insights achieved, however, there remains a strong need for future research to build upon these findings and further expand our understanding of this important research topic. It is believed that such research will offer meaningful implications for research and practice alike.