اثر تعدیل رفتار فروش فروشندگان 'در انگیزه خرید و رضایت: گردشگران تایوان در چین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|27598||2006||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 27, Issue 5, October 2006, Pages 934–942
According to an official tourism report from China, Taiwan tourists’ shopping expenditures were ranked number one in China. Taiwanese tourists place foremost emphasis on the quality of products and services they received from salespeople. However, research on Taiwanese shopping behaviour was still scant. The main research objective was to investigate the moderating effect of selling behaviour on shopping motivation and satisfaction in China. The results indicated that SOSB (service-oriented selling behaviour) had positive moderating effects on variety of products, quality of products, and shopping habits. PSOSB (product selling-oriented selling behaviour), on the contrary, elicited negative moderating effects on quality of products, uniqueness/good value and non-availability in Taiwan. Also, a salesperson's selling behaviour had a negative moderating effect on shopping motivation and satisfaction in terms of attractive prices. With reference to the fashion or novelty, no moderating effect was found on shopping motivation and satisfaction with either SOSB or PSOSB. Generalized Negativity Theory and Assimilation-Contrast Theory were used to explain the results.
Shopping is an important element in tourism (Timothy & Butler, 1995). Shopping attracts nearly 50% of the expenditures of Taiwanese tourists (Mak, Tsang, & Cheung, 1999). It is common for tourists, in particular Asian shoppers, to purchase crafts or souvenirs with reference to cultural norms of gift-giving and, as in other parts of the world, to collect authentic mementos (Littrell, Anderson, & Brown, 1993; Wang & Ryan, 1998). Shopping is the most popular tourist activity in many destinations (Kent, Shock, & Snow, 1983) and big retail stores and shopping outlet complexes have become indispensable facilities in modern tourism destinations (Turner & Reisinger, 2001). Shopping opportunities are important elements in destination marketing (Jansen-Verbeke, 1988). Keown (1989) and Heung and Qu (1998) indicated that a trip is not complete without spending time shopping. For tourists, shopping is not only a must-do activity (Cohen, 1995) but also a destination attraction (Ryan, 1991; Timothy & Butler, 1995). Shopping is an attraction which complements other attractions in a package tour (Mak et al., 1999). Jansen-Verbeke (1988) defined tourism shopping as the purchase behaviours of tourists at their destination. Excluding food and drink items, the types of tourist purchasing include clothing, shoes, jewellery, leather, perfumes/makeup and watches, as well as arts and crafts and foodstuffs deemed to be typical of the area. Kent et al. (1983) found that the expenditures on shopping are larger than on accommodation and food. Furthermore, from the perspective of destination economic gains, shopping contributes significantly and affords job opportunities for local merchants as well as for those that make the products that they sell. For some developing countries, tourism promotion and development are paramount economic growth strategies. China is typical in this respect (Vellas & Becherel, 1995). According to the China Travel Bureau's statistical figures (2002), the inbound tourists reached 97,910 million in 2001. Their average daily expenditure was US$140.09. Among them, foreign tourists (exclusive of compatriots, i.e. people from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) spent US$147.72 per person per day, followed by Hong Kong Chinese (US$111.19 per person per day) and those from Macau (US$102.09 per person per day). Taiwan tourists spent the most compared to other international tourists (US$ 151.50 per person per day). Similarly, Taiwan tourists spent the most (US$67.24) on day visits to China. Thus, the expenditures of Taiwan tourists are worthy of great attention for they are significant spenders (Mok & Lam, 1997; Lang, O’Leary, & Morrison, 1997; Mok & Iverson, 2000; Master & Prideaux, 2000). Although some research has been conducted on Taiwanese shopping behaviour in Hong Kong (Mok & Lam, 1997; Mak et al., 1999; Wong & Law, 2003; Lehto, Cai, O’Leary, & Huan, 2004), Australia (Master & Prideaux, 2000) and Guam (Mok & Iverson, 2000), the magnitude of Taiwanese shopping behaviour is still not well-recognized. Because of Taiwan's colonial past (ruled by Dutch and the Japanese) and with the American military influence from 1954 to 1979, Taiwanese tourists are compelled to look for symbolic meanings in both western (e.g. American and European) and eastern cultures (e.g. Japanese and Chinese) and, therefore, their spending patterns are difficult to predict (Mok, Armstrong, & Go, 1995). For example, they do not place initial emphasis on price when shopping. Rather, they stress the quality of the merchandise and the services received from salespeople (Van Roo, 1989). Taiwan is the largest international tourist-generating market to China (Wang & Ap, 2003). Nevertheless, the researchers are not aware of previous research exploring Taiwanese shopping behaviour in China. Obviously, China and Taiwan share similar cultural roots and no major obstacles in communication exist between the two peoples. Therefore, more and more Taiwanese travel to China for a variety of purposes (Yu, 1992). However, it is claimed that Taiwanese complain that they get charged more than locals and other nationalities. In fact, some Taiwanese tourists have informally been called “Dai-bou” (“stupid compatriots”) by some salespeople in China ( Chang, 2001). Nevertheless, Taiwanese are still interested in engaging in shopping in China during their travels. However, according to Zhang and Lew (2003), China is a latecomer on the world tourism stage. The training of salespeople who cater to tourists is insufficient. Yet, salespeople's selling behaviours influence consumers’ satisfaction, often substantially ( Westbrook, 1981; Westbrook & Black, 1985; Goff, Boles, Bellenger, & Stojack, 1997; Heung & Cheng, 2000). Naturally, as pointed out by Spiro and Weitz (1990), China inbound tourists’ shopping satisfaction should be influenced by the local salesperson's selling behaviour in delivering services to meet tourists’ shopping motives. As such, what kind of moderating effects do these salespeople have on the shopping motives and satisfaction of Taiwan tourists? Thus, the major research objective is to investigate the moderating factor (salesperson's selling behaviour) and its effects on Taiwanese tourists’ shopping motivation and satisfaction when travelling in China.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The major objective of this research is to investigate the moderating factor (salesperson's selling behaviour) and its effects on Taiwan tourists’ shopping motivation and satisfaction when travelling in China. The findings support the notion that the interaction between the salespeople and shoppers is a vital component of product delivery and thus influences shoppers’ consumption motives and satisfaction (Yuksel, 2004). As in most studies, this research has some limitations. The research focus is confined to three major cities in China. With regard to shopping items, luxury items such as jewellery and expensive food products are excluded. Furthermore, other possible moderating effects, such as the emotion elicited by the shopping trip and situational factors including human crowding are not explored in this study. This constitutes a research opportunity. However, several insights have arisen that merit discussion. First, the findings confirm that Taiwan tourists generally place more emphasis on a salesperson's attitude and behaviour than product prices alone when shopping during their stays in China. Although prices are often higher than was expected prior to the trip, with less satisfaction than expected from this perspective, Taiwanese do not hesitate to purchase souvenirs or other products in China. As indicated earlier, the average shopping expenditure of Taiwan tourists is ranked number one among all inbound tourists to China. Alcoholic beverages, Chinese medicines, arts and crafts and silk/leather products are among the most popular items that Taiwan tourists acquire. Taiwan travel agencies should carefully select their partnerships with shopping outlets in China. In particular, stores that possess a reliable reputation, provide good services and have well-trained staff that know the shopping habits of Taiwanese should have priority in tour itineraries. This will probably lead to increased expenditures and, enhanced visitor satisfaction as well as positive word-of-mouth referrals. Secondly, tourists should be surveyed concerning their shopping preferences and satisfaction. In this way, areas for improvement, such as service quality and shopping environment, may be identified. The relevant retailers, travel agencies, travel guides and even local travel bureaus in China can have a better and a more realistic picture of shopping opportunities and can use the insights for improving their shopping facilities, environment, and the service quality of salespeople. The study results show that specific attention should be given to Chinese service providers’ face-to-face interaction when they conduct selling practices. Store assistants or other salespeople in major tourism destinations in China, through the genuine training efforts requested by both travel agents and local travel bureaus, would be more patient and more concerned about Taiwanese tourists’ needs. Furthermore, the need for less overbearing salespeople, incorporating helpful assistance whenever tourists need assistance, should be emphasized in every marketing strategy aimed at increasing Taiwanese tourists’ expenditures while shopping. The information can also be used to increase visitor satisfaction and, ultimately, to increase the number of visitors to China. Lastly, if the quality of the merchandise can be enhanced and the after-sales service can be provided in line with respondents’ suggestions, then China will be a step closer to becoming a paradise for tourist shoppers.