بررسی آزمایش رفتار انسانی برای شبیه سازی تخلیه افراد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|28065||2004||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3273 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ocean Engineering, Volume 31, Issues 8–9, June 2004, Pages 931–941
Walking speed is a very important factor in evacuation analysis for human safety. To provide against emergencies such as abandonment of ship due to accident, the authority body required evacuation analysis for passenger ships. To develop a simulation tool for the evacuation analysis, human behavior data for evacuation situations are fundamentally necessary. In this paper, onboard experiments were carried out twice, once with ship motion and another without ship motion. They were performed assuming the situation where subjects are evacuating under instructions from the crew without panic. Not only individual movement but also group movement with and without motion based on inclination was covered.
There have been many accidents of passenger ships at sea and they have caused huge losses of human lives. The interim guidelines for evacuation analyses for new and existing passenger ships were developed by the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and circulated as MSC/Circ. 1033 (IMO, 2002) for the purpose of unified implementation of the requirement of evacuation analysis which is required by regulation. The MSC considered whether the interim guidelines should be made mandatory for large passenger ships and, having noted that more data on application of the interim guidelines are needed to validate the methodologies and criteria contained in the above guidelines, agreed that this issue should be further considered by the committee. In 1995, the 41 m long high speed twin hull passenger liner St. Malo (Lockey et al., 1997) was stranded off the shore of France and the passengers evacuated while the ship was listing. The total evacuation time of 308 passengers after the distress signal was recorded as 1 h and 17 min. It is more than nine times the total evacuation time recorded during evacuation drill in stationary conditions, which was 8 min. This is a good example showing that evacuation analyses that does not take account of motion, listing, and the psychological state of the passengers are meaningless in the real world. In this paper, onboard experiments were carried out twice, once with ship motion and another without ship motion. They were performed assuming the situation where subjects are evacuating under instructions from the crew without panic. Not only individual movement but also group movement with and without motion based on inclination was covered. The results showed that a floor with motion decreases the walking speed by 10–20% and an inclined floor without motion also affected walking speed. The results from the experiments will be used to increase the accuracy of the evacuation simulation system, which is being developed.