مقایسه دو نوع از تخفیف قیمت در تغییر نگرش و نیات خرید مصرف کنندگان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|28146||2009||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6110 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 62, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 14–21
This study focuses on consumer responses to two different types of price discounts: 1) a price discount with and 2) a price discount without a minimum purchase requirement. The effects of the discounts are examined to the extent that they may change consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions regarding a particular brand, by moving it from consumers' hold set to consideration set. A three-phase study on fast-food services in China was conducted. The results of the study provide new empirical insights regarding how to use a brand categorization model to predict the effects of different types of price discounts on consumer purchase behavior. More specifically, this study demonstrates that when a price discount with and without a minimum purchase requirement is applied to a brand in a hold set, the brand moves from the consumers' hold set to the consideration set. However, the effects of the two types of price discounts on consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions are not significantly different. The results are discussed in relation to brand management and marketing strategies in consumer goods industries.
Companies often hope that consumers will consider their brands when making a purchase decision. Unfortunately, consumers only take into account a limited number of brands, included in their consideration set. Most brands are excluded from consumers' consideration set and are categorized in their hold or reject sets (Erdem and Swait, 2004, Laroche et al., 2005 and Mitra, 1995). Therefore, companies are faced with the challenge of attracting consumer attention, and altering brand attitudes and purchase intentions towards their brands in order to move the brands from consumers' hold or reject sets to their consideration set. Marketers often use sales promotions to enhance or improve consumers' perceptions regarding the value of their products, which will, in turn, increase sales volume (Lattin and Bucklin, 1989 and Taylor, 2001). Marketers continue to spend a large proportion of their budget on sales promotions. However, most promotion strategies fail to achieve their goals (Gedenk and Neslin, 1999 and Grewal et al., 1998). Therefore, marketers are keenly interested in the possibility of predicting the effectiveness of their marketing strategies on increasing consumer purchase intentions before implementation (Laroche, 2002). Research has shown that, in most market segments, only two to three brands hold the majority of market share, and the remaining brands are either close to or just below average market share (Laroche et al., 2005). Given the highly competitive arena that most brands face, it is important to understand whether offering a price discount will effectively change consumers' evaluations of a particular brand. To date, there is little empirical research that has addressed the effects that the different types of price discounts have on the movement of brands from consumers' hold set to their consideration set through the changing of consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions regarding these brands. This study uses a brand categorization model to compare the relative effectiveness that a price discount with and without a minimum purchase requirement has on shifting consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions regarding a particular brand, thereby moving the brand from the consumer's hold set to consideration set. The methodology used in this study is also applicable to many other frequently used marketing promotions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The main goal of this study was to examine the effects of two types of price discounts on the movement of a particular brand from a hold set to a consideration set by changing consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. To accomplish this goal, a three-step study was conducted. The first step involved the identification of the top 11 fast-food brands. The second step involved the classification of fast-food brands into one of the four sets, and identifying the relative position of each brand in China's fast-food services industry. Results from this step revealed that consumers had significantly higher mean scores for cognition, attitude and purchase intention for brands categorized in the consideration set than all other fast-food brands categorized in the other three sets. The third step involved randomly selecting one of the four brands categorized in the hold set and applying it with a price discount with and without a minimum purchase requirement. Beijing Quanjude Roast Duck was selected and the two price discounts were applied to the brand's menu. ANOVA tests were performed to examine the mean differences of cognition, attitude and purchase intention for each brand between the two types of price discounts. Results indicated that consumer cognition, attitude and purchase intention towards Beijing Quanjude Roast Duck significantly increased after the two types of price discounts were applied. It is important to note that both types of price discounts increased the mean size of the consideration set from two to three brands. However, the mean scores for cognition, attitude and purchase intention were not significantly different between the two types of price discounts. Results suggest that both types of price discounts are an effective promotional tool and may successfully persuade consumers to shift both their attitudes and overall purchase intentions towards products. More specifically, price discounts can move a brand from consumers' hold set to consideration set by changing attitudes and purchase intentions towards that brand. However, the effects on consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions do not differ significantly between the two types of price discounts. There are several explanations as to why brand attitudes and purchase intentions are positively influenced by price discounts. Consumers already have positive evaluations for brands in the hold set. This prior positive evaluation provides the brand with leverage and increases its chance of moving into the consideration set. Consumers may be fond of certain characteristics of the brand, such as its quality, but may be less fond of other characteristics, such as its price being outside of their purchasing range. Applying a price discount offers a solution to this problem, by allowing the brand to be more available to a broader consumer base. This moves the brand from the hold set to the consideration set. Price discounts remove financial barriers, which may prevent consumers from purchasing a certain product based on pecuniary factors, and allow them to make a purchase based on quality and other services (Raghubir et al., 2004). When consumers are offered price discounts with a minimum purchase requirement, the decrease in freedom and flexibility in deciding the desired purchase quantity is more than off-set by the increase in savings due to purchasing in bulk. In addition, the purchase requirement may not have a negative effect on consumers' brand evaluation, as they may believe that the quantity requirement is easy to meet. In other words, in the situation of a price discount with a minimum purchase requirement, the reduced price still plays a key role in influencing consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. It is for this reason that the effects of a price discount with and without a minimum purchase requirement on consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions do not differ significantly. Results from the current study have significant implications for both researchers and marketers. This study provides solid evidence to researchers that consumers' brand choice and behaviors can be tested and measured in different industries and in different promotional contexts. Results are consistent with previous research (Brisoux and Laroche, 1980 and Laroche et al., 2005), in that consumers categorize the available brands in the market into one of four sets and choose one brand within the consideration set. This study further suggests that brand movements are inevitable and consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions can be changed; brand movements influence the total set of brands over time. Specifically, this study provides a method to predict the effectiveness of marketing promotion tools before they are implemented. This study can be further developed to determine the specific types of promotions that will lead to a quicker and more effective brand movement from one set to another. This study provides several interesting solutions for marketers attempting to change consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. Marketers must first determine where their brand is situated in the market relative to competitors' brands. Marketers can then apply a price discount to their brand, which may help the brand move from the hold set to the consideration set. Results indicate that, prior to the price discount, brands in the hold set received a lower mean attitude score than after the discount. Compared to a price discount without a minimum purchase requirement, a price discount with a minimum purchase requirement will not only increase consumers' brand awareness and perception of savings, but also provide an incentive to purchase in bulk. Due to the fact that price discounts increase consumers' motivation to purchase a brand, marketers must improve the quality of their offering while promoting their brand (Lemon and Nowlis, 2002 and Papatla and Krishnamurthi, 1996). An increase in consumers' brand evaluations will increase both attitudes and purchase intentions (Sethuraman, 1996). Sales promotions represent a high risk to companies because they decrease profit margins. A large price discount will lower a company's profit margin; in order to keep a constant profit margin, the company must increase sales volume to benefit from economies of scale. However, as illustrated by this study, a price discount with a minimum purchase requirement reduces the level of risk associated with profit margins and has the same positive effect of increasing consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions as the price discount without minimum purchase requirement. Consumers may be able to consume more than the minimum purchase requirement or believe that they can save more if they buy in bulk. As a result, increased sales volume may not only compensate for a lower profit margin due to discounted prices, but may also serve to increase profit to a new higher level and enhance brand awareness. The brand's movement from the hold set to the consideration set also indicates that consumers are price sensitive. This gives marketers the freedom to play with price variations.