به دنبال ابزار تصادفی مشابه مکسی میسر : تجزیه و تحلیل اقتصادی از سطح تعهد در روابط شخصی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|28170||2000||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4778 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Economic Psychology, Volume 21, Issue 1, February 2000, Pages 73–90
This paper presents the first attempts by economists to estimate a random utility maximisation model for the choice of desired involvement level in heterosexual relationships. A sample of newspaper `personal' advertisements is used to estimate a multinomial logit. Age is found to reduce the net probabiblity of seeking a casual relationship. A number of variables are found to be significant determinants of declared entry level
Economists inspired by Becker, 1973 and Becker, 1974 have (see Grossbard-Shechtman, 1995 and Bergstrom, 1996) investigated family formation and related topics such as extramarital affairs (Fair, 1978). However there has not been explicit consideration of the process of partner selection with the exception of the early work of May (1954) and the illuminating work of Lemennicier (1988) who also gives some descriptive statistics on personal advertisements. The problem of matching relationship partners, at the aggregate level, has been modelled mathematically in the important work of Bergstrom and Bagnoli (1993) and Burdett and Coles (1997) and the micro matching problem was earlier studied by Gale and Shapley (1962). The focus of Burdett and Coles is on equilibrium in the aggregate market. The degree of reduction from the salient characteristics of the real world is strong, as the model is basically a straightforward analogue of the labour market where employers and workers pair according to productivity. A single real number index `pizazz' is used to represent the attributes being offered. Individuals meet at periodic intervals to observe each other's `pizazz' with a view to either marrying or not. From our perspective, the principal shortcoming in the Burdett and Coles world is the neglect of the multidimensionality of the implicit contracts formed by couples who pair with a view to marriage. In this area, it is not always easy to separate the search process from the end state. Economists have ignored the choice of `entry level' to the process being signalled by a partner seeker, for example those using personal ads. in newspapers, offer such things as `friendship possibly leading to relationship', or `seeks soulmate', or `daffodil seeks vase', or `young female seeks solvent older male'.2Lemennicier (1988), using French advertisements, looks at requests for characteristics such as beauty, sense of humour, affection, height and weight but he does not look at the process of emitting signals about the nature of relationship sought. The neglect of these signals is partly because of the focus on the companionate heterosexual marriage as a status quo that economists have simply accepted (see e.g. Posner, 1992). This is increasingly questionable as the average amount of time spent by individuals in an officially contracted male plus female plus children relationship is declining in modern society due to a number of factors. Divorce is an obvious one but there are also factors leading to an expanded pre-marriage phase. In 1995, in the UK, 70% of women had lived with their future husband before marriage compared with 5% in the mid-1960s. Of men aged 16–59, in 1995, 21% were described as single never married (source: Population Trends 80, 1995). In the empirical part of the paper we examine, using personal advertisements, stated preferences about the entry level of relationship sought. We estimate a multinomial logit model for a four-way split between long-term, casual, platonic, and ambiguously defined relationships. This is the first ever estimation of this kind of model as Lemennicier's (1988) work on personal advertisements did not extend into econometric estimation.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has presented an economic analysis of declared preferences for involvement level in personal relationships. This has been implemented empirically on a sample of `personal advertisements'. The random utility maximization model was found to have good predictive power and uncovered a number of significant relationships with the explanatory variables. A dramatic decline in the pursuit of casualness with age was demonstrated. The declaration of the presence of a child has an overwhelming influence on the choice of a long-term relationship. The pursuit of long-term relationships was found to be significantly related to resources expended in this mode of partner search. One might feel inclined to question the generalisability of these results. Clearly, those in the sample are a self-selected group who have explicitly chosen newsaper advertising as a means of searching for a partner. In this rather obvious sense they are unlike the general population. However, this does not necessarily limit the validity of this work which is concerned with the examination of strategy and the expression of preferences. It would be rash to conclude that advertisers are desperate lonely people with atypical strategies or preferences especially given the growing resort to marketised partner search due to economic factors emphasised earlier in this paper. Further, the works cited in Section 4 suggest that advertisers have quite similar characteristics to non-advertisers. Obviously, future research is needed replicating this work using data from other advertising sources and direct survey methods.