سیستم مبتنی بر قواعد فازی برای تجزیه و تحلیل اقتصادی از سرمایه گذاری های RFID
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|28728||2010||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6029 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 37, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 5300–5306
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology introduces the opportunity for increased visibility by facilitating easy tracking and identifying of goods, assets and even living things. The number of RFID applications and users in various fields are growing. However, high investment cost and inadequate technical capability still remain as challenges for RFID system implementations. That being the case, fair evaluation of savings associated with increasing performance and investment costs has a great role in the success of RFID projects. In this study, a systematic framework for the economic analysis for RFID investment is proposed. In this method, the elements of cost and benefits are determined in order to measure the value of an RFID investment. The expected increase of customer order is determined in terms of delivery accuracy and delivery time via a fuzzy rule-based system. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to determine the expected net present value (NPV) of RFID investment. A case study is constructed on the basis of expert conception to illustrate the proposed method.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person. The principal advantages of RFID system are the non-contact, non-line-of-sight characteristics of the technology. Tags can be read through a variety of visually and environmentally challenging conditions such as snow, ice, fog, paint, grime, inside containers and vehicles and while in storage. RFID systems are emerging as a practical means of auto-identification in a wide variety of applications from access control to animal tracking. RFID systems are likely to supersede bar codes in some applications and complement bar codes in others (Roberts, 2006). An RFID system consists of three components: an antenna and transceiver (often combined into one reader) and a transponder (the tag). The antenna uses radio frequency waves to transmit a signal that activates the transponder. When activated, the tag transmits data back to the antenna. The data is used to notify a programmable logic controller that an action should occur. The action could be as simple as raising an access gate or as complicated as interfacing with a database to carry out a monetary transaction. Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems is regarded as key to the success in supply chain management, no matter which product or industry is considered. Therefore, RFID systems gained popularity and implemented for distribution, manufacturing, warehousing processes, even in industries such as defense and healthcare. The history of this technology goes back to 1939. During World War II, the British wanted to distinguish between their own returning aircrafts and those of the enemy, thus they placed transponders on their aircrafts which would be able to respond appropriately to interrogating signals from base stations. This was called the identity friend or foe (IFF) system and is widely considered the first use of radio frequency identification (Dittmer, 2004). The first commercial use of the RFID began in the 1960’s with the development of the electronic article surveillance (EAS) equipment by the companies Sensormatic, Checkpoint and Knogo to prevent the theft of merchandise. In the 1970s developers, inventors, companies, academic institutions, and government laboratories began working actively on RFID, and notable advances were being realized at research laboratories and academic institutions. In 1990’s RFID saw the wide scale deployment of electronic toll collection in the United States and the installation of over three million RFID tags on rail cars in North America (Landt, 2005). Subsequent to the announcement of US. Department of Defense that RFID technology held the potential to revolutionize “In-Transit-Visibility” and the “Total Asset Visibility” in supply chains, many technology vendors were encouraged to push forward RFID development for commercial purposes (Liard, 2003). However, the value of RFID technology for managing business supply chains has only been recognized in recent years. The business press has since proclaimed that RFID marks a commercial innovation with the potential to soon replace barcode technology in the supply chains of numerous industries. Incited by those developments and promises, companies from varying industries planned RFID adoption aiming to exploit cost saving potentials and new business opportunities. As costs in the semiconductor industry decrease and data communication standards improve, the use of RFID technology has increased. The cumulative number of RFID tags sold over the last 60 years is 3.752 billion, with 27% sold in 2006 and 19% in 2005. The market is expected to rise to $27.88 billion in 2017 (Das & Harrop, 2007). RFID pilot projects have recently been carried out in various industries. The UK-based retailer Marks & Spencer plans to extend its successful item level RFID tagging program from 42 to 120 stores by spring 2007, on the way to tagging all 350 million items of apparel sold yearly. Galeria Kaufhof, a division of Metro Group, launched RFID-based shopping services for customers at its store in Essen, Germany. An entire floor of the department store was outfitted with Electronic Product Code (EPC) RFID technology, enabling customers to use RFID enabled dressing rooms and displays and a smart mirror that had previously been available only for demonstration purposes (Wessel, 2007). Airbus has already begun RFID projects. Since 2006, when the company started its phase-one deployment, it has saved millions of euros each year by cutting process cycle times, eliminating paperwork, and reducing inventory (Wasserman, 2007). Deutsche Post World Net (DPWN) launched a project to develop passive RFID tags incorporating a small, rewritable display for use on mail containers. These D-RFID tags will be used as part of an RFID application under development to track DPWN’s 6 million yellow shipping containers. The company utilizes the crates to carry the 70 million letters that pass through its 84 distribution centers each day (Wessel, 2006). In an effort to reduce costs and improve patient safety and services, numerous hospitals and medical centers have deployed RFID technologies to track high-value assets, patients, medical records, blood products, and beds. Early press releases by many companies outlined ambitious timelines for the implementation of RFID along their entire supply chains (Collins, 2006). However, several years after the first releases, very few projects have been completed, indicating that the process of RFID adoption and diffusion along supply chains is more complex than generally anticipated. And it is also not easy to quantify the expected benefits of RFID integrated systems since many are strategic and intangible. Therefore, in this study a fuzzy rule-based system is proposed to calculate the revenue increase of an RFID integrated system. And the Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to calculate the expected net present value (NPV) of an RFID investment. This paper starts with the review of relevant literature about RFID implementations and fuzzy rule-based systems. Section 3 provides an overview about the analysis of cost and benefits of RFID investments. The real life problem that the authors dealt with and the model proposed due to this problem are introduced in Sections 4 and 5, respectively. In the following section, the fuzzy rule-based system is presented. In Section 7, the results of the Monte-Carlo simulation are analyzed and discussed. Finally, Section 8 presents the conclusions and outlines further research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
RFID is used for a wide variety of applications ranging from the familiar building access control proximity cards to toll collection, vehicle parking access control, ski lift access, tracking library books, theft prevention, vehicle immobilizer systems and railway rolling stock identification and movement tracking. Recent advances in RFID have also enabled its early adoption in supply chain management and logistics. According to Kumar and Budin (2006), the most cutting edge technology for supply chain integrity and traceability is the RFID system. RFID can often reduce or eliminate manual labor requirements, which provide direct cost savings and often improves accuracy, which produces other benefits. Many common warehouse and distribution center activities provide a strong opportunity to generate positive return on investment (ROI) from an RFID system. However, companies typically don’t implement comprehensive, end-to-end RFID systems. Rather, RFID technology for warehouse and distribution operations they selectively apply the technology to improve specific processes that are labor intensive or prone to creating delays or inaccuracies. By starting with a flexible RFID infrastructure, the investment can be leveraged and return on investment (ROI) improved by encompassing additional applications. As applications grow, so does inventory visibility, which ultimately leads to lower inventory levels and more efficient supply chain operations. For managers and professionals, it is very important to accurately measure the benefits of an RFID project in the planning phase. Using the most proper investment evaluation methods, the managers can take the accurate decisions on RFID implementation projects. In this study, economic evaluation of an RFID investment within a company is investigated by cost/benefit analysis. The cost of the RFID deployment involves the hardware, software and service costs; on the other hand cost reduction and revenue increase are the main expected benefits. The purpose of this research is to propose an integrated model considering the expected revenue increase due to the RFID implementation. Therefore, the fuzzy rule-based system is used to calculate the expected revenue increase and the Monte-Carlo simulation method is applied to determine the expected NPV of RFID investment at different certainty levels. In the future study, the proposed model will be improved and a decision support system will be developed to evaluate RFID investments.