تجزیه و تحلیل اقتصادی سیاست های حمایت های مختلف برای تولید انرژی الکتریکی توسط فتوولتائیک خورشیدی در غرب کشورهای اتحادیه اروپا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|28730||2010||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9642 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 38, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 3297–3308
Within various renewable energy technologies, photovoltaics (PV) today attracts considerable attention due to its potential to contribute a major share of renewable energy in the future. However, PV market development is, undoubtedly, dependent on the political support of any given country. In this paper, after a brief analysis of national support policies in PV technology in western European Union (EU) countries, the authors perform an economic analysis of the main support mechanisms as implemented in the same countries, based on the calculation of the cash flow, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) indices. The analysis shows that in some situations support policies can be inconvenient for the owner of the PV-based generation system and that, in many cases, the differences between the implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give rise to significantly different results. The analysis carried out in this work could help: • to assess the impact of PV energy policies in different western European member states; • renewable energy companies to identify potential PV markets and investigate the policy landscape across western EU countries.
In 2001, the EU officially recognized the need to promote Renewable Energy Sources (RES) as a priority measure for environmental protection and sustainable development and also for meeting Kyoto protocol (EC, 2001) targets quicker. With the European Council (EC) act 7224/1/07 (EC, 2007) European countries have promoted the use of RES, targeting an objective of a 20% contribution of RES on the total European energy production in 2020. This ambitious goal has been confirmed by the European Directive 2009/28/EC (EC, 2009), the so-called “Climate and Energy Package”, that represents the concrete proposal from the EU for a revision of the Kyoto protocol. The Climate and Energy Package includes: • the reduction of at least 20% of greenhouse gases, from 1990; • the production from RES of 20% of internal energy consumption; and • the use of bio-fuels to cover at least 10% of the energy consumption for transport. These ambitious goals will only be reached with an effective incentivisation policy of RES-based production systems and with a concrete effort towards the improvement of the energy efficiency of these sources. Within various RES-based technologies, PV today attracts considerable attention due to its potential to contribute a major share of renewable energy in the future. The solar resources worldwide are abundant and cannot be monopolized by few countries. However, PV and other RES are the only sources of energy that will offer a price reduction rather than an increase in coming decades. Electricity generated with PV systems and other RES have many positive benefits for the European economy. With increasing installations of RES, the electricity generated can help to reduce the dependency of EU countries on energy imports. In addition, electricity from PV is generally produced during peak hours, that is, when electricity is most expensive. In 2008, the total PV power installed in EU member states doubled with respect to the cumulative PV power installed in previous years. The total PV power installed in 2008 in the EU-27 totalled 4592 MWp, bringing to 9533 MWp the total installed PV power in EU countries at the end of 2008. Spain represented almost half of the new installations in 2008 with almost 2.7 GW of new capacities, followed by Germany with more than 1.5 GW of additional PV connected power. Italy connected almost 260 MW while France, Portugal, Belgium, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria also achieved good scores confirming Europe as the global leader in the deployment of solar PV energy (IEA, 2008). The enormous progression in 2008 has been specifically due to the development of the Spanish market which represents more than 45% of the global PV market. PV market development is, undoubtedly, dependent on the political support of any given country, that is defined in the national laws. The introduction, modification or fading out of such incentivisation schemes can have great consequences on the PV market. In this paper, a brief description of the different support policies in PV technology in western EU countries is carried out (the definition of western Europe is according to UNESCO1). A comparative economic analysis among the main support measures (feed-in tariffs (FIT) and tradable green certificates (TGC)) implemented in western EU countries is performed. The analysis is based on the calculation of cash flow and the NPV and IRR indices.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has presented a comparative analysis of the main supporting strategies for promoting PV systems in western EU countries. The analysis shows the most convenient case, as the lowest maintenance and management cost has been considered in the calculations. As has been shown previously, 14 out of the 17 considered member states have already introduced support policies for developing PV energy. However, the efficiency of these measures to increasingly exploit these countries’ PV potential varies considerably with regards the details in each national regulation. In those member states where the tariff does not cover the expenses, impact is very limited (as in the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Finland, Ireland and Sweden). In some other member states there is a motivating tariff, but its effectiveness is limited because: • the cap is too low (i.e. Austria); • FITs’ values are guaranteed for too short a number of years (i.e. Austria, Cyprus, Luxembourg and the Netherlands); and • administrative procedures are too complicated or obstructive (i.e. Cyprus, Greece and France). Only member states in which the FITs are high enough to recuperate the investment cost in a reasonable time, and the cap is realistic enough, have PV installations increased competition in production and trade developed substantially. The results of the analysis presented in the paper, even though in line with the experimental evidence, covers only some situations among those that can occur in practice. The PBP, IRR and NPV values depend on different factors. In particular, the value of solar irradiation, very different from different locations in the same country, can shift the results of the analysis towards different conclusions. Moreover, the same economic evaluation carried out for large-scale PV plants, can lead to very different results. The comparative analysis carried out in this work could help: • to assess the impact of PV energy policies in different western European member states; • to gain an insight into the future of possible energy policies and outcomes which may assist in identifying a potential PV market; and • renewable energy companies in identifying PV potential markets and investigate the policy landscape across western EU countries. In a future work, the authors will carry out an economic evaluation of large-scale PV plants and will extend the analysis to eastern European member states.