آموزش پارامترهای شبکه های بیزی در داده های ناقص با دانش تخصصی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|28987||2009||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Pattern Recognition, Volume 42, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 3046–3056
Bayesian networks (BNs) have gained increasing attention in recent years. One key issue in Bayesian networks is parameter learning. When training data is incomplete or sparse or when multiple hidden nodes exist, learning parameters in Bayesian networks becomes extremely difficult. Under these circumstances, the learning algorithms are required to operate in a high-dimensional search space and they could easily get trapped among copious local maxima. This paper presents a learning algorithm to incorporate domain knowledge into the learning to regularize the otherwise ill-posed problem, to limit the search space, and to avoid local optima. Unlike the conventional approaches that typically exploit the quantitative domain knowledge such as prior probability distribution, our method systematically incorporates qualitative constraints on some of the parameters into the learning process. Specifically, the problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem, where an objective function is defined as a combination of the likelihood function and penalty functions constructed from the qualitative domain knowledge. Then, a gradient-descent procedure is systematically integrated with the E-step and M-step of the EM algorithm, to estimate the parameters iteratively until it converges. The experiments with both synthetic data and real data for facial action recognition show our algorithm improves the accuracy of the learned BN parameters significantly over the conventional EM algorithm.
In recent years, Bayesian networks (BNs) have been increasingly used in a wide range of applications including computer vision , bioinformatics , information retrieval , data fusion , decision support systems and others. A BN is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) that represents a joint probability distribution among a set of variables, where the nodes denote random variables and the links denote the conditional dependencies among variables. The advantages of BNs can be summarized as their semantic clarity and understandability by humans, the ease of acquisition and incorporation of prior knowledge, the possibility of causal interpretation of learned models, and the automatic handling of noisy and missing data . In spite of these claims, people often face the problem of learning BNs from training data in order to apply BNs to real-world applications. Typically, there are two categories in learning BNs, one is to learn BN parameters when a BN structure is known, and another is to learn both BN structures and parameters. In this paper, we focus on BN parameter learning by assuming the BN structure is already known. If the training data is complete, learning BN parameters is not difficult, however, in real world, training data can be incomplete for various reasons. For example, in a BN modeling video surveillance, the training data may be incomplete because of security issue; in a BN modeling customer behaviors, the training data may be incomplete because of privacy issue. Sometimes, the training data may be complete but sparse, because some events rarely happen, or the data for these events are difficult to obtain. In general, training data can be missed in three ways: missing at random (MAR), missing completely at random (MCAR), and not missing at random (NMAR). MAR means the probability of missing data on any variable is not related to its particular value, but could be related to other variables. MCAR means the missing value of a variable depends neither on the variable itself nor on the values of other variables in the BN. For example, some hidden (latent) nodes never have data. NMAR means data missing is not at random but depends on the values of the variables. The majority of the current learning algorithms assume the MAR property holds for all the incomplete training samples since learning is easier for MAR than NMAR and MCAR. The classical approaches include the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm  and Gibbs sampling . Other methods are proposed to overcome the disadvantages of EM and Gibbs sampling. For example, methods are proposed to learn the parameters when data are not missing at random, such as the AI&M procedure , the RBE algorithm , and the maximum entropy method  and ; some methods are proposed to escape local maxima under the assumption of MAR, such as the information-bottleneck EM (IB-EM) algorithm , data perturbation method , etc.; other methods are proposed to speed up the learning procedure, such as generalized conjugate gradient algorithm , online updating rules , and others. When data are missing completely at random, in other words, when several hidden nodes exist, those methods could fail, where the learned parameters may be quite different from the true parameters. In fact, since there are no data for hidden nodes, learning parameters becomes an ill-posed problem. Thus, prior data on domain knowledge are needed to regularize the learning problem. In most domains, at least some information, either from literature or from domain experts, is available about the model to be constructed. However, many forms of prior knowledge that an expert might have are difficult to be directly used by existing machine learning algorithms. Therefore, it is important to formalize the knowledge systematically and incorporate it into the learning. Such domain knowledge can help regularize the otherwise ill-posed learning problem, reduce the search space significantly, and help escape local maxima. This motivates us to propose a Bayesian network learning algorithm for the case when multiple hidden nodes exist by systematically combining domain knowledge during learning. Instead of using quantitative domain knowledge, which is often hard to obtain, we propose to exploit qualitative domain knowledge. Qualitative domain knowledge impose approximated constraints on some parameters or on the relationships among some parameters. These kind of qualitative knowledge are often readily available. Specifically, two qualitative constraints are considered, the range of parameters, and the relative relationships between different parameters. Instead of using the likelihood function as the objective to maximize during learning, we define the objective function as a combination of the likelihood function and the penalty functions constructed from the domain knowledge. Then, a gradient-descent procedure is systematically integrated with the Expectation-step (E-step) and Maximization-step (M-step) of the EM algorithm, to estimate the parameters iteratively until it converges. The experiments show the proposed algorithm significantly improves the accuracy of the learned BN parameters over the conventional EM method.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
When a large amount of data are missing, or when multiple hidden nodes exist, learning parameters in Bayesian networks becomes extremely difficult. The learning algorithms are required to operate in a high-dimensional search space and could easily get trapped among copious local maxima. We thus present a constrained EM algorithm to learn Bayesian network parameters when a large amount of data are missing in the training data. The algorithm fully utilizes certain qualitative domain knowledge to regularize the otherwise ill-posed problem, limit the search space, and avoid local maxima. Compared with the quantitative domain knowledge such as prior probability distribution typically used by the existing methods, the qualitative domain knowledge is local (only concerned with some parameters), easy to specify, and does not need strong assumption. For many computer vision and pattern recognition problem, data is often hard to acquire and the model becomes increasingly complex. It, therefore, becomes increasingly important to incorporate human knowledge into the otherwise ill-posed learning process. Our method can solicit simple yet effective qualitative constraints from human experts, and then systematically incorporate them into the learning process. The improvement in learning performance is significant. Both the experiments from the synthetic data and real data for facial action recognition demonstrate that our algorithm improves the accuracy of the learned parameters significantly over the traditional EM algorithm. The domain knowledge in the current learning algorithm was formalized by two simple constraints: a range of a parameter, and relative relationships between different parameters. Although they are very useful, it is possible to introduce more types of constraints into learning, such as the relationships between the sum of several parameters, parameter sharing, etc. More constraints will help further reduce the search space, although they may not be easy for domain experts to specify. Furthermore, we assumed model structures are known and thus only focused on learning model parameters. However, in many applications, the structure could be unknown, or it is too difficult for domain experts to manually construct a complete structure. Learning the BN structure is therefore also necessary. Most current approaches to BN structure learning assume generic prior probabilities on graph structures, typically encoding a sparseness bias but otherwise expecting no regularities in the learned structures. We believe that the domain knowledge about model parameters can also help in learning the model structure.