تشخیص حرکت دست بر اساس چارچوب شبکه های بیزی پویا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29030||2010||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Pattern Recognition, Volume 43, Issue 9, September 2010, Pages 3059–3072
In this paper, we propose a new method for recognizing hand gestures in a continuous video stream using a dynamic Bayesian network or DBN model. The proposed method of DBN-based inference is preceded by steps of skin extraction and modelling, and motion tracking. Then we develop a gesture model for one- or two-hand gestures. They are used to define a cyclic gesture network for modeling continuous gesture stream. We have also developed a DP-based real-time decoding algorithm for continuous gesture recognition. In our experiments with 10 isolated gestures, we obtained a recognition rate upwards of 99.59% with cross validation. In the case of recognizing continuous stream of gestures, it recorded 84% with the precision of 80.77% for the spotted gestures. The proposed DBN-based hand gesture model and the design of a gesture network model are believed to have a strong potential for successful applications to other related problems such as sign language recognition although it is a bit more complicated requiring analysis of hand shapes.
Since Johansson's work on human motion perception and analysis , many researchers in computer vision have tried to analyze and understand human motion in video. Aggarwal and Cai reviewed literatures related to human motion analysis. In the paper, they divided human motion analysis into three areas, i.e. body structure analysis, tracking, and recognition, and addressed the relationships among these areas . In this paper, we focus on the recognition of human hand motions occurring in a video sequence. Pavlovic et al.  surveyed problems and issues in visual hands gestures. To date a large body of literatures focuses on isolated hand gesture recognition , , , , ,  and  whereas only a small number of works dealt with detecting and recognizing hand gestures from video frames , ,  and . A hand gesture can be described by a locus of hand motion recorded in a sequence of signal frames. To model these signals hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been widely accepted as the choice of the models with applications to video analysis problems, such as recognizing tennis motions , identifying humans by their gaits  and , browsing PowerPointTM slides using hand commands  and so on. Brand et al. suggested a coupled HMM that combines two HMMs with causal, possibly asymmetric link to recognize three T’ai Chi gestures . Recently, there has been an increasing interest in a more general class of probabilistic models, called the dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), which includes HMMs and Kalman filters as special cases. DBN is a generalized version of the Bayesian network (BN) with an extension to temporal dimension. Du et al. defined five classes of interactions that could happen between two persons and developed a DBN-based model which took local features such as contour, moment, height and global features such as velocity, orientation, distance as observations . Park et al. employed a DBN to analyze the change of the poses of body parts and recognized the interaction between two persons . Avilés-Arriaga et al. extracted the region and the center of a hand as input features and used a näive DBN to recognize 10 one-hand gestures . Early on, Pavlovic proposed the use of DBN for gesture recognition that can be seen as a combination of an HMM and a dynamic linear system . Wilson also presented modeling techniques to adapt gesture models using the DBN scheme . Yang et al. used time-delayed neural network to analyze feature vectors from hand trajectories . With 40 different isolated signs they achieved a recognition rate up to 96.21%. Nefina et al. compared several different methods of audio-visual speech recognition and suggested the use of coupled HMMs and factorial HMMs by showing that coupled HMMs outperformed all the other models in the performance of recognition . The coupled HMM will be compared with the proposed model in our experiments. These previous works considered recognizing isolated gestures rather than spotting gestures in a continuous stream of motion. León et al., on the other hand, used a sliding window of 10 frames to represent the local trajectory with 10 observation nodes in a BN . They showed that, even though some of the observations were missing, the method could still distinguish similar gestures such as “Good-bye” from “Move-Right.” Shi et al. considered to segment and recognize human activities from a continuous action stream and presented a semi-Markov model . Voglar and Metaxas proposed a framework for recognition of an American sign language based on an HMM. In their experiment, they extracted the signer's arm and hand motion information using three video cameras and an electromagnetic tracking system. The method achieved a recognition rate of 94.5% in isolated single signs and 84.5% in whole sentences . Recently, Yang et al. proposed a threshold model which extends conventional conditional random fields model to dealing with the task of spotting and recognizing American signs in a set of vocabulary . In this paper, we propose a dynamic Bayesian network model for hand gesture recognition that can be used to control media players or slide presentation. Unlike previous systems the proposed model accepts both one and two hand gestures. Given a video sequence, it captures the hand motion trajectories and relations to the face. They are converted to time series signals, and analyzed by gesture models. In experiments with 10 isolated gestures, the proposed model achieved a recognition rate of 99.59% with cross validation. In addition, a more practical problem of continuous gesture recognition is addressed based on a cyclic spotting network connecting gesture DBNs. To simultaneously recognize gestures and detect the start and end points of embedded gestures in a sequence of motion signals we developed a Viterbi-like dynamic programming method. A test on long videos showed 84% in recall and 80.77% in precision. In the rest of the paper, we will define 10 hand gestures and describe the methods of detecting and tracking hands, and describe features in Section 2. The proposed hand gesture recognition model and the inference and learning algorithm are explained in Section 3. Section 4 presents a circular network model for continuous gesture motion spotting and recognition for practical applications. The experimental results are presented and analyzed in Section 5. Finally Section 6 concludes the paper. A preliminary partial version of this paper appeared in  and  with limited scope of isolated gesture classification. The main contribution of the current work compared to the previously published conference papers is that it analyzes the results of isolated gesture recognition by decoding the hidden states in DBNs. We then further extend the DBN-based hand gesture model to deal with continuous gestures stream by designing a gesture network model and developing a Viterbi-like dynamic programming method for more practical applications. The proposed gesture network model can detect the start and end points of the embedded meaningful gestures in a video stream. We also demonstrate many experimental results both on isolated and continuous gestures recognition.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has discussed a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN)-based framework for hand gesture recognition. The use of DBN is not new in the area of the general class of human activity recognition. But the technology still leaves room for further developments for systematic modeling and extension to real world complex patterns. The one idea of the proposed method is the introduction of DBN tailored for hands gesture recognition. This contrasts with the fixed architecture of coupled hidden Markov model which is not deemed effective for other than tight-coupled two-party interactions. Another key feature is the DBN-based network design that can comprise a generic framework for modeling and inferencing in arbitrarily complex pattern recognition problems. Although stochastic models are useful for describing the noisy and incomplete observations, accurate and reliable input is an important factor for the successful recognition. We applied two skin color models to detect skin pixels in each frame: the YIQ color model commonly employed to detect skin pixels and the histogram-based color model built from the pixels in the face region. The skin blobs are then tracked across frames by applying the modified method of Argyros et al. . Instead of simplistic linear prediction, we computed the optical flow for an explicit prediction and accurate tracking of hand motion. We also proposed a new hands gesture model having three hidden variables which together take five observations: chain codes of each hand's motion, relative position between the face and each hand, and relative position of two hands. We tested the DBN-based system performance with a data set which was captured from seven different subjects at different times, in total 490 video sequences. The DBN model showed the recognition rate of 99.59% in isolated gesture recognition with a cross-validation technique. For continuous gesture recognition we designed a cyclic network of gesture DBN models including filler gesture model which links two successive gestures. Inference over the network is a dynamic programming search that spots gestures and recognizes them. The system showed the recall rate of 84% with the precision of 80.77%. All the features used are discrete and thus may be possible to lose some important information that can be useful for better performance. However, we believe this effort is a useful and informative milestone for future research efforts on more complex gestures such as sign languages and whole body gestures.