دستورالعمل FAO برای توسعه و استفاده از شاخص های برای توسعه پایدار شیلات ضبط دریایی و یک مثال استرالیایی از کاربرد آنها
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29038||2000||20 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7015 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 43, Issue 7, July 2000, Pages 537–556
Guidelines for developing and implementing sustainability indicators for marine capture fisheries were drafted during a recent expert consultation jointly organised by Australia and FAO in Sydney (Australia). This paper provides an overview of the guidelines and illustrates their application with an Australian example. As a background to the guidelines, the concept of sustainable development (SD) for marine capture fisheries was discussed and an agreed set of definitions and usage of common terms developed. The guidelines then outline the five sequential steps that need to be addressed in developing a meaningful set of indicators in the context of a Sustainable Development Reference System (SDRS). The five steps are: 1. specifying the scope of the SDRS; 2. developing a framework to agree on components within the system; 3. specifying criteria, objectives, potential indicators and reference values; 4. choosing the set of indicators and reference values; 5. specifying the method of aggregation and visualisation. These steps are further elaborated in terms of how to scope the SDRS, define the dimensions and hierarchical levels to be included in the system, set multiple objectives and link these to indicators and reference values (e.g. targets, thresholds and/or standards). The guidelines also provide some examples of possible indicators, criteria for selecting some indicators over others and present ways of aggregating and visualising the indicators so that progress towards achieving sustainable development can be communicated easily to decision-makers.
This paper presents an overview of the guidelines developed during a recent Technical Consultation on Sustainabilty Indicators in Marine Capture Fisheries organised by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry-Australia (AFFA) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). It also reports on progress being made by Australia in implementing the guidelines. The authors acknowledge the valuable input and contribution of all the participants of the Consultation (listed under acknowledgments). The intent of this paper is to bring the achievements of the Technical Consultation to a broader audience so that the guidelines can be considered and hopefully implemented by national and international agencies, worldwide. The guidelines were produced to support the implementation of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries by providing decision- and policy-makers in marine capture fisheries a handy tool to operationalise sustainable development. The guidelines should also assist fishing companies and associations and non-government organisations with an interest in fisheries and fisheries resources develop better tools to implement certification and accreditation of fisheries products. The guidelines recognise that the capacity of different nations to develop and implement indicators will differ and they attempt to provide a flexible framework so that all nations can develop indicators that are consistent with international reporting requirements. They also should facilitate the sharing of information at the relevant national, regional and global levels. The guidelines stress that indicator-based systems are not an alternative to the more comprehensive sets of information and the more detailed modelling that are conventionally used to manage fisheries. However, trends in indicators may stimulate changes in policy as well as the general approach to fisheries management.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
There is a general agreement that the fisheries management paradigm needs to be significantly broadened to match the definitions and principles of sustainable development and the requirements of human as well as ecosystem well being. This will require a broadening of the data domains and a much larger degree of complexity of fishery models. The need to appreciate sustainable development at sub-sector and sector levels as well as in an inter-sectoral perspective (e.g. in the context of integrated coastal area management) imposes requirement for highly parameterized frameworks which will not be amenable, in most cases, to conventional modelling approaches. As a consequence, broad indicator systems will be needed, combined with modelling of some sub-parts of the system. In addition a formal system of indicators, providing objective linkage between the outcomes and the objectives of management should improve awareness of management failure and, ultimately, promote more effective management. The main message from the FAO guidelines is that indicators need to be developed in a systematic reference system (the SDRS) in order to be useful for their intended purposes. In particular, the scope of the system for which indicators are being developed and its dimensions and criteria need to be agreed before indicators are even contemplated. Setting objectives for each of the criteria is an essential part of indicator development and in many cases will clearly identify the relevant indicator and its associated reference value. The most obvious constraint to the development of useful indicators is the lack of a coordinated integrative approach across counties, sectors and fisheries. The guidelines have provided the first step in making such an integrated and coordinated approach. Australia has made some progress in implementing the guidelines and is pleased with the outcomes. To progress the development and implementation of indicators, a worthwhile next phase would be to select some case studies and apply the guidelines to these. Australia would be willing to collaborate with others in this endeavour. Regional agencies such as ICES could play a major role in coordinating sustainable development indicators for fisheries as a comprehensive sustainability framework (and dashboard). The steps laid out in the guidelines lend themselves to workshopping in which all the stakeholders address the steps outlined above and collectively make decisions regarding the scope, framework, etc. As the next step, the authors suggest that ICES takes this approach, using several case studies at different spatial scales to develop the system. This should then be “cascaded” down through the various agencies and coordinated and reported at the regional level. Such an initiative would greatly enhance fisheries management in the ICES region as well as set an example for the rest of the world to follow and adopt. The full FAO Guidelines the development and use of indicators for sustainable development of marine capture fisheries will be published soon. They contain a fuller description of the approach highlighted in this paper as well as some more practical examples of indicators and reference points covering the different dimensions of sustainable development. More work is needed to operationalise them further and develop them for specific situations (e.g. small-scale fisheries). Coooperation between FAO and ICES in the testing of the guidelines through development of case studies would be most useful.