توسعه پایدار در صنعت معدن: روشن ساختن چشم انداز شرکت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29041||2000||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7770 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Resources Policy, Volume 26, Issue 4, December 2000, Pages 227–238
This paper examines sustainable development in the corporate mining context, and provides some guidelines for mining companies seeking to operate more sustainably. There is now a burgeoning literature that examines sustainable development in the context of minerals and mining, most of which is concerned with sustainability at global and national scales. What is often challenging to ascertain, however, from these numerous perspectives on sustainable mineral extraction, minerals and metals recycling, environmental management, and social performance, is how sustainable development applies to mining companies themselves, and what steps a mine must take in order to improve the sustainability of operations. Since mining processes have the potential to impact a diverse group of environmental entities, and are of interest to a wide range of stakeholder groups, there is ample opportunity for the industry to operate more sustainably. Specifically, with improved planning, implementation of sound environmental management tools and cleaner technologies, extended social responsibility to stakeholder groups, the formation of sustainability partnerships, and improved training, a mine can improve performance in both the environmental and socioeconomic arenas, and thus contribute enormously to sustainable development at the mine level.
The debate surrounding sustainable development in the mining industry is a drawn-out one, which has long gained considerable attention from a wide range of parties. The Brundtland Commission, in its landmark report Our Common Future, defined sustainable development as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” ( WCED, 1987). This definition, however, fails to outline an effective sustainability framework for any industry to follow. The Brundtland Report emphasizes that no single blueprint for sustainability exists and that the ways in which countries achieve sustainable development will vary among the different economic and political systems around the world ( NRC, 1995), prompting a number of academics, industrialists and government employees to provide personal viewpoints on the applicability of sustainable development to mining. Consequently, the body of literature on this subject now contains a wide-range of interpretations, and increasingly it is becoming unclear as to how exactly mines can contribute to sustainable development. Although many have defined and applied the concept differently (see Fig. 1), sustainable development, generally, is the combination of enhanced socioeconomic growth and development, and improved environmental protection and pollution prevention. It first received global endorsement as a management and developmental strategy at the highly popularized United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), commonly known as the “Earth Summit”, in Rio, 1992, where 116 heads of state or government, 8000 delegates from 172 countries, and 3000 accredited individuals from nongovernmental organizations (Pezzoli, 1997) gathered to discuss practical strategies for tackling pressing global problems. Sustainable development has since become a key focus of planning, environmental protection, and remediation efforts worldwide, and several academics and industrialists, in an attempt to operationalize the concept, have developed a number of policy frameworks, indicator sets, and management guidelines for use by governments and businesses.Most of the discussions on mines, minerals, and sustainable development to date are concerned with sustainability at the global and national scales. Some authors (e.g. Brown, 1993, Auty and Warhurst, 1993, Mikesell, 1994, Tilton, 1996 and Auty and Mikesell, 1998) provide perspectives on how the benefits of mineral production and use can be sustained from generation to generation. Primary examples include sustained mineral assets (prolonged longevity of reserves) through conservation, and increased minerals and metals recycling. Others (e.g. Carbon, 1997 and Miller, 1997) discuss the value of sustainable development as a guiding principle in mining environmental management. They argue that sustainable development has enormous utility when drafting key environmental codes of practice and in target setting, and or generally indicate that by preventing significant environmental problems from the outset, and by adopting proactive environmental standards, the mining industry can contribute to improved sustainability. Another group (e.g. James, 1999, Labonne, 1999 and Eggert, 2000) view enhanced socioeconomic relations — more specifically, stakeholder consultation and participation — as an integral component of mine sustainability, or argue that social and cultural issues represent an important dimension of sustainable development. Again, most of these and the other major mining sustainability pieces are global and national in focus, or are simply broad, holistic perspectives. What is clear, however, from reviewing this burgeoning body of literature, is that very little attention has been paid to mines themselves and on interpreting the appropriate role of mining corporations. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to describe more clearly how mines can contribute to sustainable development, and to provide guidelines for mining companies seeking to operate more sustainably. The paper begins by clarifying sustainable development in the corporate mining context by examining the key environmental and socioeconomic issues in the industry. Some guidelines are then presented as a performance tool for those mines keen on becoming more active in the arena of sustainable development. The paper concludes by presenting a case study of two Canadian mining companies, Rio Algom and Placer Dome Inc. — the management of both of which has been active in improving the sustainability of mine operations — in an attempt to illustrate how selected mining companies are embracing sustainable development at the corporate level.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The paper has attempted to bridge a major gap in the sustainable development and mining literature by clarifying exactly how sustainable development can be applied in the corporate mining context. Since the industry's operations have the potential to impact a wide range of environmental and socioeconomic entities, by committing to improved environmental performance and addressing the needs of stakeholders and community groups from the outset, mines can put the concept of sustainable development into practice. The paper has also offered guidance for mining companies interested in improving the sustainability of their operations. Six recommendations were made — improved planning, improved environmental management, cleaner technology implementation, increased stakeholder involvement, formation of partnerships, and improved training — that if followed, would help any mine improve the sustainability of its industrial practices. Finally, case studies of two Canadian mining companies, Rio Algom and Placer Dome Inc., were presented to illustrate further how mining companies can operationalize sustainable development. As the 21st century begins, it is becoming increasingly important that mines, for the benefit of ecology, surrounding communities, governments, and its employees, continue to tackle pressing socioeconomic and environmental issues with improved strategy, and help put sustainable development into practice in the industry.