دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 29077
عنوان فارسی مقاله

توسعه پایدار برق آبی و انرژی زیست توده در ترکیه

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
29077 2002 22 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید 9340 کلمه
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عنوان انگلیسی
Sustainable development of hydropower and biomass energy in Turkey

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 43, Issue 8, May 2002, Pages 1099–1120

کلمات کلیدی
توسعه پایدار - برق آبی - زیست توده - پس مانده های کشاورزی
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله توسعه پایدار برق آبی و انرژی زیست توده در ترکیه

چکیده انگلیسی

This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing energy demand for electricity and domestic heating in Turkey. Air pollutant emissions due to power generation and their harmful effects on the environment are also presented. We also argue in favor of small scale dams for sustainable development. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By commissioning of new hydropower plants (HPPs), which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country would be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second important renewable energy source for Turkey. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country was 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering the total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50–60 million tons per year of biomass and 8–10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of the total biomass is seen as possible to use for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life in Turkey, as in other countries. Much of the world's energy, however, is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if technology were to remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially. The need to control atmospheric emissions of greenhouse and other gases and substances will increasingly require the highest efficiency in energy production, transmission, distribution and consumption in the country. On the other hand, the electricity supply infrastructures in Turkey, as in many developing countries, are being rapidly expanded, as policymakers and investors around the world increasingly recognize electricity's pivotal role in improving living standards and sustaining economic growth. On the contrary, in the coming decades, global environmental issues could significantly affect patterns of energy use around the world, as in Turkey. Any future efforts to limit carbon emissions are likely to alter the composition of total energy related carbon emissions by energy source in the country [1]. Energy is considered a prime agent in the generation of wealth and also a significant factor in economic development. The importance of energy in economic development has been recognized almost universally. The historical data attest to a strong relationship between the availability of energy and economic activity. During the past two decades, the risk and reality of environmental degradation have become more apparent. Growing evidence of environmental problems is due to a combination of several factors, since the environmental impact of human activities has grown dramatically because of the sheer increase of world population, consumption, industrial activity etc. Achieving solutions to the environmental problems that we face today requires long term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions. That is why there is an intimate connection between renewable energy and sustainable development [2]. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change, agreed to in December 1997, marks an important turning point in efforts to promote the use of renewable energy worldwide. Since the original framework convention was signed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the threat of climate change has spurred many countries to increase their support of renewable energy. Even more ambitious efforts to promote renewable energy can be expected as a result of the Kyoto pact, which includes legally binding emissions limits for industrial countries and, for the first time, specially identifies promotion of renewable energy as a key strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions [3]. A water power plant is, in general, a highly effective energy conversion system. There is no pollution of the environment, but objections are raised relative to the flooding of valuable real estate and scenic areas. Whether a particular hydroelectric installation is economically competitive with a fossil fuel power plant will depend upon a number of factors, in particular, fuel and construction costs. In numerous instances, a hydroelectric power plant is clearly economically superior to a comparable thermal power plant. In Turkey, most of the important water power plants have been developed, hence only a modest increase in the hydroelectric generating capability can be anticipated in the next two decades [4].

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

To achieve even the modest environmental goals of the Kyoto Protocol accords requires the sustained and orderly commercial development of viable renewable energy options. It is not enough for government to support the development of renewable energy technologies, it must also support their commercial application in the country. If support of renewable energy research and development is an appropriate use of public funds, so too is purchasing the fruits of these research programs. Like health care, education, construction and maintenance of roads and national defense, renewable energy is a public good. The promise of renewable energy is that it offers a solution to many of the environmental and social problems associated with fossil and nuclear fuels. Whilst it appears to be technically possible to replace all fossil and nuclear fuels with renewable energy sources, on the basis of present and projected costs, the energy supplied will be substantially more expensive than it is now. However, there is a strong argument that conventional fuels are currently underpriced because their prices do not include provision for their environmental effects. Because of the fact that Turkey is an energy importing country and coal fired power plants produce a significant amount of pollutants (CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matter), the country must use its own clean and domestic energy sources, especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind power sources. In terms of environmental protection, hydropower, solar and wind energy are the most effective options available today for Turkey. In the case of hydropower, it is estimated that the 2,500 billion kW h of power generated by hydroelectric plants in 1997 prevented the release of more than two billion metric tons of CO2 to the atmosphere, which would have otherwise arisen from generation of this power in coal fired power plants. This volume of CO2 corresponds to about one-tenth of the worldwide emissions caused by power generation. Sustainable development requires a balance between nature and mankind. Through this balance, it programs the life and development of both present and future generations without depleting natural resources. It is a concept, which has social, ecological, economic, spatial and cultural dimensions. In this meaning, as touched earlier, the southeastern Anatolia project had originally started as a land and water resources development effort and was later transformed into a multi-sectoral and integrated development project by the GAP administration. The GAP administration integrated the environmental and social-humanitarian dimensions to economic growth targets in conformity with the concept of sustainable development. This means that GAP accords as much importance to the enhancement of quality of life, as it does to economic growth. Infrastructure development, agricultural and industrial development, environmental protection, development of natural resources, social services and all other activities, including those which contribute to economic growth, are assessed in terms of their sustainable contributions to the quality of life. The use of fossil fuels for energy production contributes to air and water pollution. Nuclear energy has been associated with severe accidents and disposal problems for hazardous wastes. Hydroelectric energy is relatively free of pollution, but large hydroelectric plants disturb natural habitats, including the lifestyles of local communities. These problems can be reduced if SHP are used. These will contribute to sustainable economic growth and development in general and to rural development in particular, but they also have some limitations. On the other hand, there is a lack of information about the environmental problems related to large dams in Turkey. Estimates of such externality costs and their reflection into the price of electricity or water are not available. Externalities are not adequately described in the literature. The environmental groups are not as organized and visible as they are in industrialized countries. People in the east and southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey, where almost all of the large hydroelectric projects are being built, do not seem to object to the program. The reason for this passive behavior may be that east Turkey is the poorest part of the country, and the infusion of investments is decreasing the high unemployment rates [39]. There is considerable potential for the modernization of biomass fuels to produce convenient energy carriers, such as electricity, gases and transportation fuels, whilst continuing to provide for traditional uses of biomass. This modernization of biomass and the industrial investments is already happening in many countries. When produced in an efficient and sustainable manner, biomass energy has numerous environmental and social benefits compared with fossil fuels. These include improved land management, job creation, use of surplus agricultural land in industrialized countries, provision of modern energy carriers to rural communities of developing countries, a reduction of CO2 levels, waste control and nutrient recycling. Greater environmental and net energy benefits can be derived from perennial and woody energy cropping than from annual arable crops, which are short term alternative feedstocks for fuels. Agroforestry systems can play an important role in providing multiple benefits to growers and the community, besides energy. In order to ameliorate CO2 emissions, using biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels is more beneficial from the social and economic perspectives than sequestering the carbon in forests [6]. The use of wood and residues for heating applications in the residential sector in rural areas is the most relevant Turkey market for biomass at present. Firewood is from fuelwood, windbreaks, four sides trees (surrounding a village, road, water or house) and timber trees, as well as bush, sparse woods, economic (trees used in economic applications) and other forest products. Wood is likely to remain a predominant energy source for households in the all rural regions of Turkey, as in the Black Sea region, because the affordable alternatives are limited. In the villages, the preparation of three stone fires is very attractive to the villagers. In this method, food and plant residues are put into a large boiler (about 40–50 l) with water and cooked for animal feed on a traditional stove outside the house. Food and plant residues are cheaper than flour and bran. Nevertheless, this method consumes much more fuelwood than that used for cooking stoves [40]. Biomass in its traditional forms (especially wood and plant wastes) is still the main source of energy in the rural areas of Turkey, as in many developing countries, and will continue to be so in the future. With 80% of the world's population expected to live in developing countries by 2040, this will have profound implications on how biomass energy is produced and consumed. Current production and consumption patterns of biomass for energy would have to change, and its production and consumption would have to be environmentally sustainable. The negative environmental and health effects will have to be tackled, so that the majority of poor people can reap the advantages of renewable and cleaner biomass fuels. Biomass energy has often been associated with a poor environment and health hazards, but these attributes are not inherent to woody biomass but are the consequence of underdevelopment, social, cultural and economic factors. The following concluding remarks can be drawn from this study: 1. There are a number of environmental problems in the country that we face today. These problems span a continuously growing range of pollutants, hazards and ecosystem degradation over the country. So, all government agencies and other non-governmental agencies in the country must work together to utilize their renewable energy and choose the appropriate application for Turkey. 2. The technology of hydropower involved has proven itself over a long period of time and is, therefore, very reliable. The actual service of a hydroelectric power plant is extremely long in comparison to other types of power plants. This makes water power very attractive from an economic point of view. 3. Water is continually regenerated and available at no cost. It use generates no harmful emissions to burden the environment. Waterpower also yields great ecological and economic benefits when coupled with flood protection, river engineering, raising of the groundwater level, irrigation and the supply of drinking water. 4. Projects should be further developed aiming at sustainable management of natural resources and income generation in rural areas of the country that ensure the environmental impact assessment of sub-projects of the GAP and minimize their adverse environmental impacts (e.g. erosion). 5. Due importance should be given to river type small hydroelectric power plants, and considering the energy need of the country, domestic manufacturing and installation of machinery and equipment of these plants should be encouraged. 6. Biomass energy (especially woodfuel) presents a considerable opportunity for Turkey to obtain a significant part of our future energy needs from this sustainable energy source because, at present, modern technologies are increasingly being applied to woodfuel development. Many industrialized countries are deliberately increasing wood energy use for environmental and socio-economic reasons.

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