استراتژی هائی برای توسعه پایدار صنعت و معدن در مقیاس کوچک طلا و الماس غنا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29094||2003||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Resources Policy, Volume 29, Issues 3–4, September–December 2003, Pages 131–138
The small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry is of great importance to Ghana. Since its regularization in 1989 the sector has produced and sold over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds. During the same period the sector also provided direct employment to over 100,000 people and improved the socioeconomic life of many individuals and communities. However, these were largely achieved at a cost to the environment in areas where mining is carried out and there is the need to develop the industry in a sustainable manner. This paper looks at the developments in the small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry in Ghana and proposes some strategies on how the concepts of sustainable development could be applied to the industry.
For many centuries the small-scale mining of precious minerals has made a significant impact on the socioeconomic lives of people and communities involved directly or indirectly in the sector (Kesse, 1985 and Hilson, 2002a). In Ghana, the precious minerals mined at the small-scale level are gold and diamonds. Since the regularization of small-scale mining in 1989, over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds have been produced by the sector (Ghana Minerals Commission, 2004). Due to its labor intensity, small-scale mining operations generally generate significant employment avenues, especially in remote rural areas where alternative job opportunities are scarce and low paying. Apart from the direct employment contributions of small-scale mining, it also generates a substantial number of indirect jobs in other sectors of the economy. However, production of these minerals has been at a cost to the environment and there is the need to develop the sector in a sustainable manner. Sustainable development of minerals and other natural resources has been endorsed as a global management and development strategy and environmental, economic and social developments have been highlighted as the three pillars of sustainable development and their integration is encouraged (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) Staff, 1987 and Anon, 1992). There are, however, several arguments about the applicability of these concepts in the minerals industry, especially the small-scale minerals industry, since minerals are non-renewable resources that are subject to exhaustion in the course of production. The exhaustible nature of mineral resources places a limit on growth of these industries and hence their sustainability (Lele, 1991, Mikesell, 1994, Traore, 1997, Ednie, 2002 and Anon, 2002). In Ghana, there is an ongoing discussion by stakeholders in the mining industry on measures to mitigate the negative effects of small-scale gold and diamond mining and to help the industry to develop in a sustainable manner (Yakubu, 2002 and Hilson, 2002b). This paper is a contribution to the debate. It focuses on how the general concepts of sustainable development can be applied specifically to the small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry in Ghana. Sustaining the sector is considered in the context of the mineral supply process, environmental and health implications, and the socioeconomic realities of the affected areas.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In the present contribution it has been observed that: (i) Since the passage of the Small-Scale Mining Law in 1989, the small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry has received financial and technical support from local and international organizations and some progress has been made in the activities of the miners. (ii) Production of gold and diamonds by the small-scale mining sector has led to significant socioeconomic impact on individuals and communities involved in the small-scale mining activity and an increase in the overall production of the minerals in the country leading to increased foreign exchange earnings. (iii) The increase in mineral production has been at a cost to the environment and some communities have had an adverse environmental impact. (iv) The Minerals Commission of Ghana has embarked on education programs to sensitize the miners on safe mining and tailings disposal practices as well as on other environmental and safety issues, especially on the health hazards associated with the use of mercury and has introduced retorts for treating amalgamated gold. (v) Small-scale gold and diamond miners may improve their lot technically and could access financial support if they form co-operatives, companies and enterprises and also if they consider more linkage effects with other sectors of the economy. (vi) A good network and a sound financial support for the key organizations in the minerals sector of Ghana will help in the sustainable development of the small-scale gold and diamonds mining sector. There are different opinions in literature on the applicability of the concept of sustainability to small-scale mining. This paper discussed the issue in relation to the current situation in the small-scale mining industry of Ghana. A careful analysis of the steps being taken on environmental issues, products and improved human conditions in terms of education, skills and living standards as a result of small-scale mining was made in the context of prevailing socioeconomic realities of the affected areas. The results show that there are profound economic and social impacts of the industry at the local and national levels with positive results for individuals, families and communities directly or indirectly involved in these activities. Thus, every effort should be made to sustain the small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry of Ghana.