مصرف انرژی با توسعه پایدار در کشور در حال توسعه: یک مورد در جیانگ سو، چین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29097||2003||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3351 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 31, Issue 15, December 2003, Pages 1679–1684
Jiangsu is one of the provinces in China that have great population density and fast economic development. Therefore it is important to ensure large quantity of stable and high-quality energy supply for its development. With the development of the economy, the demand for energy is increasing very fast while the energy supply is going short. The supply of the local primary energy is only 23% of the demand. The final energy consumption reaches 78 Mtce (1 tce=7,000,000 kcal), among which the industry and construction account for 78%. Though the total consumption is large, the energy consumption per capita is only 1.13 tce, the electricity consumption per capita 1017 kW, and the household electricity consumption per capita is 138 kW. Coal accounts for about 76% of the total energy consumed. This paper discusses utilization ratio of energy and the serious pollution caused by energy consumption.
Energy is the vital basis of the development of human society, which is associated with several aspects of the social production and daily life. With the increasing world population and the rising living standards, the demand for energy in the world is steadily increasing. As energy is the important resource and motive power, its cheap and stable supply is the safeguard of the economy and social development. Developing countries are facing the double pressures of economic growth and environmental protection as they enter the 21st century. The energy exploitation and utilization should be based on the sustainable development and better ecological environment in developing countries, so that we can attain the objective of coordinating the relationships among society, economy, energy and sustainable environment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987; Demirbas, 2001; Dincer, 1998). China has made great strides in the last two decades in bringing prosperity to a greater share of its people. The country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) averaged an annual growth rate of 9.6% between 1979 and 1999. Many older state-run industries are being replaced by a dynamic new economy. Unfortunately, this economy requires a huge engine to run it, and the prosperity has brought it with a huge cost in the form of air pollution. In 1999, two-thirds of the primary energy consumed in China was produced by the burning of coal. Even with improvements in end-use energy efficiency, energy demand continues to grow and so does the air pollution. In China, pollution is causing serious health problems, crop damage and acid rain, all of which are taking a social and economic toll. Jiangsu lies in the east of China, bordering on the Yellow Sea, with An’hui to its west, Shantung to its north, Shanghai and Zhejiang to its Southeast. Jiangsu is located in the beautiful and richly endowed Yangtze River delta, which consists of Sunan plain, Jianghuai plain and Huanghuai plain. Its total land area is 102,600 km2, accounting for 1.05% of the national area. The area of plain and water account for 69% and 17%, respectively. By the end of 1998, Jiangsu has had a population of 71,824,600, about 700 per km2, taking the first place of the whole country. The GDP of Jiangsu province in 1998 was 7199.95×108 yuan (RMB). Allocable income per capita was 6020 yuan and net income per capita in the rural area was 3377 yuan. In recent years, Jiangsu has got a great development in its manufacturing industries, national economy and every social service. And all of these should have energy supply as its guarantee, which has caused great pressure to the environment and ecological system. Table 1 gives the GDP and the energy consumption in Jiangsu in 1985–1998, and it indicates the elasticity ratio of energy consumption in this time is 0.273. At the same time, the self-supporting ratio of energy in Jiangsu is rather low, the occupation of energy resource per capita was 0.26 tce in 1998. The majority of the energy should be imported either from other provinces or foreign countries. Therefore it is a long-term policy to ensure the balance between supply and demand, reasonable utilization and sustainable development. This paper analyzes energy resource, production and consumption in Jiangsu province and appeals for the focus on the saving of energy and raw materials, promoting the utilization ratio of resource and protecting the environment. It also brings forward some advice about the coordinated development among economy, energy and environment.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
It is obvious that Jiangsu has got a great increase in its need of energy and a great shortage in energy supply with the development of the economy. The final energy consumption reaches 78 Mtce, among which industry and construction account for 78%. The energy imported from other districts constitutes 75% of the total consumption capacity. Though the amount of energy consumption is large, the energy consumption per capita is only 1.13 tce, the electricity consumption per capita 1,017 kWh and the household electricity consumption per capita 138 kW, while about 75.5% of the total energy used is coal. Because the coal is main energy resource used, it causes low final utilization efficiency and more pollution problems. This paper discusses strategies of energy consumption for sustainable development.