تربیع دایره؟ برخی از افکار در ایده ی توسعه پایدار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29101||2004||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10311 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ecological Economics, Volume 48, Issue 4, 20 April 2004, Pages 369–384
The paper reviews how the concept of sustainable development has played out in industrialized countries since 1987. It examines the theory and practice of sustainable development in the context of three criticisms (it is vague, attracts hypocrites and fosters delusions), and argues for an approach to sustainability that is integrative, is action-oriented, goes beyond technical fixes, incorporates a recognition of the social construction of sustainable development, and engages local communities in new ways. The paper concludes with a description of an approach to sustainability that attempts to incorporate these characteristics.
There are three classical problems in Greek mathematics that were extremely influential in the development of geometry. One of them is the problem of squaring the circle: how to construct geometrically a square equal in area to a given circle. The problem was famous enough in ancient Greece that Aristophanes devotes an anecdote to it in the late fifth century BC, from which, apparently the popular term “circle-squarer” was derived, meaning one who attempts the impossible. The problem went on to bedevil mathematicians for over 2000 years until Lindeman proved that the circle cannot be squared in a “planar” fashion (i.e. with compass and ruler). In the meantime, however, and indeed since, the mathematical world has been flooded by attempts to solve the problem. I introduce this story in order to make a simple analogy. The term “sustainable development” has been seen by some as amounting essentially to a contradiction in terms, between the opposing imperatives of growth and development, on the one hand, and ecological (and perhaps social and economic) sustainability on the other. These critics might indeed be said to believe that trying to achieve sustainable development amounts to trying to square the circle, in the sense of trying to achieve the impossible. Moreover, the analogy cuts a bit deeper than that. At the heart of the problem of squaring the circle is the attempt to reconcile two incommensurable areas, which cannot be expressed in terms of each other, using the algebraic equivalent of a ruler and compass. As I will argue below, a similar problem of incommensurability lies at the root of some of the most serious criticisms of the concept of sustainable development. This paper represents an attempt to grapple with the concept of sustainable development. It will briefly touch on the history of the concept, and the record to date of attempts to implement it. Some lessons will be derived from this historical review and one attempt to apply those lessons will be described, with a few pointers at the end about the arduous process of squaring the circle in this field. The focus throughout will be on sustainable development as it has been written about in industrialized countries1. It is hoped, however, that some of the analysis or conclusions may have a broader applicability.