دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 29117
عنوان فارسی مقاله

ساخت ساختار شبکه های بیزی از وابستگی ضمنی در طرح واره رابطه چندگانه

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
29117 2011 12 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
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عنوان انگلیسی
Constructing the Bayesian network structure from dependencies implied in multiple relational schemas ☆
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 38, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 7123–7134

کلمات کلیدی
مدل داده رابطه ای - شبکه های بیزی - ساختار دیتابیس غیر مدور - تاریخ وابستگی -
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله ساخت ساختار شبکه های بیزی از وابستگی ضمنی در طرح واره رابطه چندگانه

چکیده انگلیسی

Relational models are the most common representation of structured data, and acyclic database theory is important in relational databases. In this paper, we propose the method for constructing the Bayesian network structure from dependencies implied in multiple relational schemas. Based on the acyclic database theory and its relationships with probabilistic networks, we are to construct the Bayesian network structure starting from implied independence information instead of mining database instances. We first give the method to find the maximum harmoniousness subset for the multi-valued dependencies on an acyclic schema, and thus the most information of conditional independencies can be retained. Further, aiming at multi-relational environments, we discuss the properties of join graphs of multiple 3NF database schemas, and thus the dependencies between separate relational schemas can be obtained. In addition, on the given cyclic join dependency, the transformation from cyclic to acyclic database schemas is proposed by virtue of finding a minimal acyclic augmentation. An applied example shows that our proposed methods are feasible. Research highlights ► We propose the method for constructing Bayesian network structures from multiple 3NF relational schemas. ► We establish our method based on the acyclic database theory and its relationship with probabilistic networks. ► The Bayesian network structure is constructed from relational schemas instead of database instances.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Relational models are the most common representation of structured data. Enterprise business data, medical records, and scientific data sets are most stored in relational databases. Knowledge representation and discovery on relational databases are important for real applications and widely studied in these years. It is well known that Bayesian networks, as the graphical representation of probabilistic relationship between variables, are effective and widely used frameworks (Pearl, 1988). A Bayesian network is an acyclic directed graph for representing a joint probabilistic distribution, in which the nodes represent variables and edges signify causal relationships between directly-linked variables. With associated conditional probabilities, the quantitative causal relationships among given variables can be captured. The influences between variables are expressed by probabilistic dependencies. Actually, probabilistic dependencies, especially conditional independencies, are used to simplify the representation of a joint distribution. Based on the Bayesian network, probabilistic reasoning can be made effectively. It has been concluded that constructing the structure is critical and challenging when a Bayesian network is to be learned. Several methods (Buntine, 1996, Cheng et al., 2002, Cooper and Herskovits, 1992 and Heckerman, 1995) have been proposed for constructing Bayesian networks from data. On the other hand, many researchers have noticed the similarities between probabilistic concepts and relational terminologies including conditional independence versus embedded multi-valued dependency, Markov network versus acyclic join dependency (Liao et al., 2006, Liu and Song, 2003, Wong, 1997, Wong and Butz, 2001 and Wong et al., 2000). Their research work provides some methods for constructing a probabilistic network from a new perspective. In this paper, we will right develop our methods from the above point of view. Every instance ri on a relation schema Ri conforms to data dependencies over Ri, so it is not always necessary to mine these independency information from instances, which will reduce the computation cost consequently. There have been some methods proposed pertinent to the above problem. Based on the multi-valued dependencies implied in a relational schema, Wong and Butz (2001) proposed the method for constructing a probabilistic network. Nevertheless in real-world applications, the 3rd Normal Form (3NF) or the Boyce–Codd Normal Form (BCNF) relational schemas are adopted frequently and they are obtained based on functional dependencies instead of multi-valued dependencies. Accordingly, Liao et al. (2006) gave the method for constructing the Bayesian network structure based on functional dependencies implied in a relational schema. Both of these two methods are aiming at the case that there is only one relational schema in the database. Actually, a relational database typically consists of several tables (i.e., relational schemas) and not just one table. Thus it is desired to construct the probabilistic network with regard to the database including multiple relational schemas. For such multi-relational situations, it is natural to first join the given schemas, and then construct the network structure based on the methods given in Liao et al., 2006 and Wong and Butz, 2001. However, the relationships between attributes in separate relational schemas have not been discussed in Liao et al., 2006 and Wong and Butz, 2001, while such relationships may critically determine the implied conditional independencies and then the ultimate network structure. Therefore, we will have to construct the Bayesian network structure followed by the mining of implied relationships between separate relational schemas. In addition, on the prerequisite of acyclic conditions, the methods in Liao et al., 2006 and Wong and Butz, 2001 have not concerned the case that the given relational schema is cyclic. Exactly motivated by constructing the effective Bayesian network structure in multi-relational environments, in this paper, based on implied dependencies in relational schemas, we develop an approach for constructing the Bayesian network structure and meanwhile discuss relevant properties, regardless of acyclic or cyclic cases. Fortunately, we can establish our discussion based on the existing results and conclusions that are well accepted and proved to be effective. The theory of acyclic database schemas is important in relational databases, and it is leaved alongside the theory of the relational database technology. In this paper, we apply the theory to constructing the Bayesian network structure. This application is both providing a theoretical basis for learning probabilistic models and finding a new application area for the traditional theory. Generally speaking, a typical database schema R = {R1, … , Rn} is dependency-preserving, lossless-join decomposition into 3NF. For each Ri, the set Fi of functional dependencies over Ri is knowable. From Fi, we can obtain a set Mi of multi-valued dependencies implied by Fi, written as Fi ⊨ Mi. Sciore (1981) presents the concept of the conflict-free set of multi-valued dependencies, which is equivalent to an acyclic join dependency. Based on conflict-free set, Wong and Butz (2001) gave an algorithm to obtain an acyclic dependency structure. For conflicting set M of multi-valued dependencies (MVDs), Wong and Butz (2001) pointed out “if conflicting generalized multi-valued dependencies (GMVDs) are detected, we have to rely on the domain experts to resolve these conflicts. Henceforth, we may assume that a conflict-free full minimal cover has been determined from the GMVDs supplied by the individual domain experts.” We note that the concept of conflict-free set is too harsh in term of equivalence. In fact, a subset of multi-valued dependencies, which is equivalent to an acyclic join dependency, may not be a conflict-free set. In this paper, we give the concept of the harmoniousness set of multi-valued dependencies, which is equivalent to an acyclic join dependency. And we then give an algorithm to obtain a maximum harmoniousness subset View the MathML sourceMi∗ preserving information of M i. Furthermore, a Markov network (MN ) can be viewed as an acyclic join dependency ( Wong, 1997). In this paper, the process to find a probabilistic model on R i is summed up: View the MathML sourceFi⊨Mi⊇Mi∗≡AJD=MN. Based on the obtained MN, edge orientations can be done in line with a certain sequence of functional dependencies, so the BN structure can be constructed. Above interpretation shows the underlying theory and main idea of our proposed methods throughout this paper. Generally, the main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows: • On an acyclic relational schema, we give the method for finding a best-preserved harmoniousness subset M∗ of the multi-valued dependency set M. Thus, the most information of conditional independencies in M can be retained. • For the condition of several tables, we develop the properties of join graphs of multiple 3NF database schemas and discuss the relationships between nonprime attributes in separate relational schemas. For acyclic conditions, we point out there are no any functional dependencies between the nonprime attributes. It is easy to obtain the ultimate network structure for multiple relational schemas, since the Markov network corresponding to an acyclic join dependency is decomposable. • We give an algorithm to transform a cyclic schema into an acyclic schema by virtue of finding a minimal acyclic augmentation on the given cyclic join dependency. This algorithm guarantees the probabilistic relations will not be lost. • We implement our methods and apply them into a real-world example. Accordingly, we make the comparison between the result obtained by our methods and that learned from data. The applied example shows that our methods are feasible. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces related work. Section 3 presents the preliminaries of this paper. Section 4 discusses the probabilistic model implied by a relational schema, and presents our method to obtain the maximum harmoniousness subset. Section 5 presents the properties of join graphs of multiple 3NF relational schemas. Section 6 gives the transformation of a cyclic schema to an acyclic schema. Then, Section 7 shows the applied example. At last, Section 8 concludes and points out the future work.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

In this paper, we propose the method for constructing the Bayesian network structure from functional dependencies implied in relational schemas, in which constructing the corresponding Markov network is our focus. Based on the acyclic database theory and its relationships with probabilistic networks, the Markov network can be constructed using the independence information implied in the relational schemas instead of mining the instances. Aiming at the real application of multi-relational schemas, we first improve the existing method to find the maximum harmoniousness subset for the given multi-valued dependencies. Further, we discuss the properties of join graphs of multiple 3NF database schemas, and we point out there are no any functional dependencies between the nonprime attributes. In addition, on the given cyclic join dependency, the transformation from cyclic to acyclic database schemas is proposed by virtue of finding a minimal acyclic augmentation. Further, preliminary experiments show that our proposed methods are feasible. Our methods and ideas proposed in this paper also leave open some other interesting research topics. The consistent fusion of probabilistic networks corresponding to acyclic relational schemas, and its real-world applications in decision support or prediction are our future work.

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