انرژی برای توسعه پایدار در هند: ارتباط و جهت استراتژیک
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29239||2006||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 34, Issue 5, March 2006, Pages 643–654
In recent times the two major international endorsements of the elements of sustainable development the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), have recognized universal access to energy as an important goal. In India, with a population of over a 1000 million people, it is estimated that a mere 43.5% of the households have access to electricity. The choices that the country makes towards energizing the remaining population will have a significant impact on other Sustainable Development parameters such as agriculture, water, health, and even biodiversity. India has set itself a target, going beyond the MDGs, of energizing all households by the year 2012. In view of the differentiated responsibilities of the various ministries to the Government of India, the strategy for reaching this target may not address itself to the larger development goals.
The recognition of energy as a key input for economic development is evident from the fact that the two major international endorsements of the elements of sustainable development in recent times, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), have recognized universal access to energy as an important goal. The rationale for this is that there is a huge discrepancy in the energy consumption levels between the developed and the developing countries as more than two billion people in the world (largely in Latin America, Asia, and Africa) have no access to modern energy supplies (Fig. 1).Owing to the critical link between energy and economic activity this has a negative bearing not only on the livelihoods of people, but also on several other drivers of sustainable development including water, agriculture, and health. The relationship between energy and development is best illustrated by the fact that the population living below the poverty line in developing countries reduces as we move from a low level of electrification to higher levels (Fig. 2).With a rural population of over 741 million people and the UNDP HDR reporting human poverty value of 31.4% for 2004, India ranks 48th among 95 developing countries on poverty levels. In this context, inequitable access to clean energy sources in the country is a major impediment to sustainable development. This is amply borne out by the fact that misery of close to 30% of the rural masses who do not have access to potable drinking water and over 40% who lack access to proper health facilities can be addressed to a large extent through the provision of clean and efficient energy (Census 2001, Government of India, 2001a). Moreover, the agriculture and the micro-enterprises sectors that together employ more than 30% of the population can become more productive and efficient through the provision of clean and sustainable energy options. Hence, in order to address the needs of sustainable development, it is necessary to examine the constraints related to rural energy and to find appropriate solutions that have a bearing across all sectors of rural development.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In order to solve the energy problems of rural India it is necessary to look beyond rural electrification and focus on an integrated approach to meet comprehensive energy needs. This would mean focussing on both the consumptive and productive needs of the community through interrelated efforts in planning and execution. A desirable energy programme need is to focus on a service-centred rather than product- or technology-centred approach, wherein the costing is done on a life cycle cost instead of capital investment. Moreover, it is also necessary to redirect subsidies to encourage energy efficiency, entrepreneurship and demand-side management. India has a unique opportunity to design and implement its ambitious rural energy programme for meeting the needs of sustainable development, while creating entrepreneurship opportunities at the local level. While the target it has set itself is steep, the biggest mistake would be to try and achieve this any way possible, as that would undoubtedly lead to sub-optimal, unsustainable solutions.