استراتژی انرژی سبز برای توسعه پایدار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29256||2006||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6290 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 34, Issue 18, December 2006, Pages 3623–3633
In this study we propose some green energy strategies for sustainable development. In this regard, seven green energy strategies are taken into consideration to determine the sectoral, technological, and application impact ratios. Based on these ratios, we derive a new parameter as the green energy impact ratio. In addition, the green energy-based sustainability ratio is obtained by depending upon the green energy impact ratio, and the green energy utilization ratio that is calculated using actual energy data taken from literature. In order to verify these parameters, three cases are considered. Consequently, it can be considered that the sectoral impact ratio is more important and should be kept constant as much as possible in a green energy policy implementation. Moreover, the green energy-based sustainability ratio increases with an increase of technological, sectoral, and application impact ratios. This means that all negative effects on the industrial, technological, sectoral and social developments partially and/or completely decrease throughout the transition and utilization to and of green energy and technologies when possible sustainable energy strategies are preferred and applied. Thus, the sustainable energy strategies can make an important contribution to the economies of the countries where green energy (e.g., wind, solar, tidal, biomass) is abundantly produced. Therefore, the investment in green energy supply and progress should be encouraged by governments and other authorities for a green energy replacement of fossil fuels for more environmentally benign and sustainable future.
Energy is a key factor in discussions of economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development (Dincer, 1999). A different type of energy is fossil-based energy, which generally includes coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc. Another type is green energy. As is known, fossil energy sources are not renewable. In order to explain and find out the requirement of sustainable energy strategies for green energy supply and progress, the main negative effects of fossil fuels should be first introduced. Fossil fuels have caused some major human health and human welfare problems, due to their extensive use in various industrial non-industrial sectors. Such problems are detailed elsewhere (Barreto et al., 2003; Bockris, 2003; Dincer, 2000). In reality, the main source of these problems is seen as the extensive use of fossil-based technologies and strategies only by human beings to govern the societies, countries, in short, the whole world, throughout centuries. We have reached a level that is not tolerable anymore. The urgent need in this regard is to develop green energy strategies for sustainable future without any negative environmental and societal impacts. Here, we should define green energy! It can be defined as the energy source, which has zero or minimum environmental impact, as more environmentally benign and more sustainable, and produced from solar, hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal, etc. This type of green energy reduces the negative effects of fossil energy resources and the overall emissions from electricity generation, decreases the greenhouse gases, gives an opportunity to take an active role in improving the environment, and meets the clean energy demand for both industrial and non-industrial applications. Considering the benefits of green energy, sustainability of green energy supply and progress is assumed to be a key element in the interactions between nature and society. Sustainable development requires a supply of energy resources that is sustainably available at reasonable cost and causes no or minimal negative societal impacts. Clearly, energy resources such as fossil fuels are finite and thus lack the characteristics needed for sustainability, while others such as green energy sources are sustainable over the relatively long term (Dincer and Rosen, 2004). Particularly, low-priced green energy is the most essential means for increasing the sustainable technological development and industrial productivity as well as people's living standard in a society. Therefore, permanent and effective sustainable green energy strategies should be put forward to increase the use of green energy sources and technologies (Midilli et al., 2004a and Midilli et al., 2004b). From the literature review, it is noticed that some researchers have contributed to the sustainable development aspects of various energy sources and applications (e.g., Palmer-Jones and Jackson, 1997; Weinberg, 1997; Suganthi and Samuel, 2000; Brown et al., 2001; Brown, 2001; Dell and Rand, 2001; Momirlan and Veziroglu, 2002 and Momirlan and Veziroglu, 2005; Afgan and Carvalho, 2004; Dincer and Rosen, 2004; Wustenhagen and Bilharz, 2004; Midilli et al., 2005a, Midilli et al., 2005b and Midilli and Dincer, 2005c; Dincer and Rosen, 2005; Clark et al., 2005; Gilg et al., 2005; Cannon et al., 2005; Tsoutsos and Stamboulis, 2005; Marechal et al., 2005; Nijland, 2005; Halasz et al., 2005; Goldemberg, 2005; Hughes and Johnston, 2005). However, no studies on the green energy strategies for sustainable development have appeared in the open literature. In fact, this was the motivation behind this original work. Therefore, this paper essentially aims to develop some key green energy strategies for sustainable future and to derive some key parameters like green energy impact ratio and the green energy-based sustainability ratio. As differing from other studies, this work will also: • help understand main concepts and issues about green energy use and sustainability aspects, • develop relations between green energy use and sustainability development, • encourage the strategic use and conservation of the green energy sources, • provide the methods for energy security, implementation and development, • increase the motivation on the implementation of green energy strategies for better energy supply, • give an idea to reduce the negative environmental impacts by considering the possible green energy strategies, and • form a scientific platform to discuss the possible green energy strategies for sectoral use. For the above listed outcomes, we propose seven possible green energy strategies and develop new parameters on the technological, sectoral and application impact ratios for sustainable development.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study, the green energy strategies for sustainable development are investigated and hence some key parameters are developed. The effects of technological, sectoral and practical application impact ratios on green energy impact ratio and the green energy-based sustainability ratio are studied thoroughly. We can then extract some important remarks as follows: • The fossil fuel consumption and the green energy consumption are expected to reach 13807.2 and 2694.9 Mtoe, respectively, by the year 2050. This increase indicates that we will still be dependent on the fossil fuels. • The green energy utilization ratio is estimated to be 12.31% while the fossil fuel utilization ratio is 87.69% in 2004. Based on the projected data, it expected that the green energy utilization ratio will reach almost 16.33% and the fossil fuel utilization ratio will decrease to almost 83.67% in 2050. • If the increase of fossil fuel consumption continues in this manner, it is likely that the world will be affected by many negative problems due to the fossil fuels. More utilization of fossil fuels will harm world stability and increase local and global environmental problems, resulting in increasing global unrest. It is thus suggested that the utilization of fossil fuels should be reduced, and fossil-based technologies should be gradually converted to green energy-based technologies. • The highest green energy impact ratio is found between 73.334% and 100% in case 1. Therefore, in order to obtain the highest green energy impact ratio in practice, the highest percentage (e.g. 100%) of the variable parameter in case 1 should be selected. • Case 1 gives better results than cases 2 and 3. Therefore, for a higher green energy impact ratio in practice, case 1 should be applied to increase the green energy sustainability ratio depending on the green energy strategies. Moreover, case 1 gives the best results of the green energy-based sustainability ratio depending on the green energy impact ratio and green energy utilization ratio. • Sustainable green energy strategies are definitely required to ensure the global stability by reducing the harmful effects of the fossil-based energy consumption. So, it is suggested that the importance of green energy and technologies that probably reduce the world problems and achieve a sustainable energy system should be emphasized considering the sustainable energy strategies. Moreover, a transition to the green energy-based economy should be encouraged, and developed countries, in particular, should increase investments in green energy and technologies. • Progress of green energy and technologies is based on the sustainable green energy strategies for future green energy scenarios. The foremost factor that will determine the specific role of green energy and technologies will likely be energy demand. In order to balance the energy demand now and in the future, it is suggested that sustainable green energy sources and technologies should be definitely taken into consideration to increase the sustainable development in a country. • In order to develop and implement the green energy technologies and applications in a developed or less developed country, green energy strategies appear to be essential for sustainable development. It is clear that they are becoming more and more important for human beings due to global environmental problems, green energy security and supply issues, and technological innovations. • Considering the sustainable green energy strategies, it can be concluded that the most important scenario to encourage transition to green energy and technologies, and promote green energy-based technologies is to supply the required incentives and interactions among the countries, scientists, researchers, societies and others. In summary, green energy strategies can make an important contribution to the economies of countries where green energy is abundantly produced. Therefore, the investments in green energy supply should be, for the future of world nations, encouraged by governments and other authoritative bodies who, for strategic reasons, wish to have a green alternative to fossil fuels.