دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 29258
عنوان فارسی مقاله

نقش زغال سنگ در تولید انرژی-مصرف و توسعه پایدار ترکیه

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
29258 2007 12 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
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عنوان انگلیسی
The role of coal in energy production—Consumption and sustainable development of Turkey
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 1117–1128

کلمات کلیدی
انرژی - منابع انرژی ترکیه - پتانسیل زغال سنگ ترکیه
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله نقش زغال سنگ در تولید انرژی-مصرف و توسعه پایدار ترکیه

چکیده انگلیسی

Energy is one of the indispensable factors regarding the assurance of social prosperity and economic development of a country. The developing countries struggle to obtain energy sources reliable in the long term to complete their economic development, and the developed countries struggle to get them to keep their present prosperity levels. Coal seems to continue its indispensable position among the other energy sources for many years because of its production in more than 50 countries, the least effect it has from the price fluctuation and its usage lifespan of more than 200 years. The countries that are aware of it have investments in mining fields in the countries rich in coal reserves, and they continue investing considerable amount of money. In the projections of Turkey in 2020, the primary energy consumption is estimated to be 298 Mtoe, the production is estimated to be 70 Mtoe, the ratio of production to consumption will reduce to the level of 23.5%, and this situation will cause serious risks for sustainable development. In other words, Turkey will have to import 76.5% of the energy that it consumes in the 2020s. However, Turkey can reduce the rate of the external dependency to the level of 50% by using the hard coal reserve of 1.3 billion tons, the lignite reserve of 8.058 billion tons and renewable source of great potential.

مقدمه انگلیسی

It is certain that energy is the most important necessity of human life and there is an increasing relation between the level of development and amount of energy consumed in the country. Coal, which has the greatest importance among the energy sources, is the primary factor for the industrial revolution in the world. Countries that found their coal reserves and used them in the 19th century are now developed countries of the world. Coal keeps its favor even today. Steel consumption, which is the primary indicator of the degree of development of a country, still uses coal. Coal is also commonly used in electrical power plants. Because of the inevitable decline in world reserves of petroleum and natural gas and rising demand for energy, coal is a major alternative along with nuclear power to meet these needs (Uslu, 2002). Coal is often the only alternative when low-cost cleaner energy sources are inadequate to meet the growing energy demand. Developing countries use about 55% of the world's coal today; this share is expected to grow to 65% over the next 15 years. The world coal consumption is projected to increase by 2.2 billion tons, from 5.3 billion tons in 2001 to 7.5 billion tons in 2025 (Balat and Ayar, 2004). Coal is a major fuel source for Turkey, used primarily for power generation, steel manufacturing, and cement production. Total lignite and hard coal reserves are estimated as 8075 and 1130 Mtoe, respectively. Rich lignite deposits are spread all over the country. Afşin-Elbistan, Muğla, Soma, Tunçbilek, Seyitömer, Beypazarı and Sivas basins constitute the most important lignite reserves (Balat and Ayar, 2004). The hard coal reserves are only in Zonguldak, situated in the northwest of the country, and in its surroundings (TTK, 2004). Turkey predominantly used hard coal and lignite in electricity production by the middle of 1940–1960. From the middle of the 1960s to the beginning of the 1980s, crude petroleum took the first order in energy production because of its attractive price and its usage rate of 30–40%. The serious rise in the price of petroleum after the crisis of 1973 led Turkey to the use of indigenous sources in energy production (Arıoğlu, 1994; Arıoğlu and Yılmaz, 1997a and Arıoğlu and Yılmaz, 1997b). Turkey produced the electricity energy of 23.275 GWh totally in 1980. The distribution of the produced electricity energy according to primary energy sources was as follows: hard coal 3.9%, lignite 21.7%, petroleum 25.1%, hydraulic 48% (SIS, 2003; MENR (Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources), 2004; TEDAS, 2004). From the beginning of the 1980s, explosions took place in lignite production after the use of indigenous sources gained importance, and the share of lignite in energy production rose to the levels of 40%. The development based on lignite in energy production continued until 2000. It is very noticeable that imported natural gas, which joined the primary energy sources in 1985, and the share of natural gas in the energy production began to increase rapidly. While the electricity production based on lignite, which had a serious potential among the indigenous sources, was diminishing, natural gas began to replace it. Turkey began to provide 45.2% of its electricity production from natural gas from 2003 (Arıoğlu, 1994; Arıoğlu and Yılmaz, 1997a and Arıoğlu and Yılmaz, 1997b). The share of lignite in electricity production reduced to 16% in 2003 (SIS, 2003; MENR, 2004; TEIAS, 2004).

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

The development level of countries is directly related to their economic and social levels. One of the most important factors that play a role in the acquisition of this development is energy. It automatically becomes clear that it is important for countries to obtain their energy production from their own natural sources which are cheap, environmental friendly and have a safety of supply. Coal is in a state to keep its position in energy production for many years more with its vast potential. Its production in more than 50 countries is an advantage with regard to supply safety. On the other hand, 65% of the oil reserves, which have an important share in energy consumption, are in the Middle East, and 70% of the natural gas reserves are in the Middle East and in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The probability that coal supply and prices are affected by the events anywhere in the world is very little. For example, it was seen during the first and second oil crises that the coal price did not increase as much as oil price. Coal still has a potential of 220–240 years with the consumption capacity at the moment. Coal has a 40% share in the generation of electric energy in the world. In the projections of Turkey in 2020, the primary energy consumption is estimated to be 298 Mtoe, the production is estimated to be 70 Mtoe, the ratio of production to consumption will drop to a level of 23.5%, and this situation will cause serious risks for sustainable development. In other words, Turkey will have to import 76.5% of the energy that it consumes in the 2020s. This situation poses a very big risk for its sustainable development. Instead of maximum use of abundant coal and hydraulic potential and considering a nuclear alternative, the tendency to import natural gas causes a serious contradiction. Energy policies of the country should be revised as soon as possible in order to decrease import dependence on energy sources. The mining sector should be supported by the government. Prospecting of new coal reserves in the country should be increased and maximum use of coal potential should be realized. Existing hard coal and lignite production facilities must be modernized to increase coal production, new technologies should be used for efficient energy production. The quality of Turkish coals should be increased by modern coal processing methods. In addition, Turkey should diversify energy options including nuclear power, to reduce its vulnerability to ‘shocks’ arising from price fluctuations and geo-political supply disruptions. Construction plans of nuclear power plants, cancelled several times before, should be realized as soon as possible. Hydroenergy and other renewable energy sources should be used more intensively for energy production. Measures should be taken for encouraging better efficiency and conservation in energy consumption and to deal with energy loss in electricity distribution.

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