سهم همجوشی به توسعه پایدار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29268||2007||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3244 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Fusion Engineering and Design, Volume 82, Issues 5–14, October 2007, Pages 528–533
The world demand for energy is projected to more than double over the next 50 years, indeed this will be essential to bring much of the world out of poverty. At the same time there is increasing pressure to substantially reduce atmospheric pollution, most notably of carbon dioxide. Together, these conflicting goals drive a need to produce enormous amounts of non-carbon energy supply, much greater than our total present energy supply. This presents a huge challenge. As one of very few options for large-scale, non-carbon future supply of energy, fusion has the potential to make an important contribution to sustained energy supplies. Fusion's advantages of large fuel reserves, low atmospheric emissions and high levels of safety make it an important consideration in future energy strategies. Conceptual designs of fusion power plants have been optimised against safety and environmental criteria; the results are described here and the outcomes compared with other energy sources. To make a contribution to sustainable development, fusion must be economically viable in a future energy market. The calculated costs of electricity from fusion show that, particularly in an energy market where environmental constraints are playing an increasing role, fusion can make an important contribution.
The key areas that determine the contribution that an energy source can make to sustainability are the availability of materials (including fuels), the associated hazards, from emissions, waste and accidents, the potential capacity of the energy source, the social acceptability and the costs. The issue presently of greatest concern relates to carbon emissions and climate change. The way that fusion performs in each of these areas is discussed and found to be favourable.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Fusion power, if successfully brought to the market, has strong potential benefits as a contributor to a sustainable energy system, particularly in a future energy market with reduced carbon emissions. Fusion has enormous fuel reserves, sufficient for thousands up to millions of years of world energy supply. At the same time atmospheric emissions are very low with associated radiological hazard much lower than many other options, including some common energy saving measures. Fusion plants are intrinsically safe; even the worst accidents have very low consequences and would not require evacuation of the public. In terms of waste, fusion plants offer the possibility of designs with no need for repository disposal. This latter point, and its implications for materials, depends on the details of design and the optimisation criteria, and is presently the subject where new work can most usefully done. Calculations of fusion costs look reasonable in comparison with other future energy options, particularly in the light of tightening environmental objectives, and suggest that the benefits of fusion as a major energy source may be economically accessible to the future energy market.