استفاده از شبکه های بیزی برای انتخاب طبقه بندی در گروه های GP
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29292||2014||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11899 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information Sciences, Volume 258, 10 February 2014, Pages 200–216
Ensemble techniques have been widely used to improve classification performance also in the case of GP-based systems. These techniques should improve classification accuracy by using voting strategies to combine the responses of different classifiers. However, even reducing the number of classifiers composing the ensemble, by selecting only those appropriately “diverse” according to a given measure, gives no guarantee of obtaining significant improvements in both classification accuracy and generalization capacity. This paper presents a novel approach for combining GP-based ensembles by means of a Bayesian Network. The proposed system is able to learn and combine decision tree ensembles effectively by using two different strategies: in the first, decision tree ensembles are learned by means of a boosted GP algorithm; in the second, the responses of the ensemble are combined using a Bayesian network, which also implements a selection strategy to reduce the number of classifiers. Experiments on several data sets show that the approach obtains comparable or better accuracy with respect to other methods proposed in the literature, considerably reducing the number of classifiers used. In addition, a comparison with similar approaches, confirmed the goodness of our method and its superiority with respect to other selection techniques based on diversity.
Ensemble techniques have been taken into account ,  and  in the last few years in order to further improve the performance of classification algorithms. They try to combine the responses provided by several experts effectively, in order to improve the overall classification accuracy . Such techniques rely on: (i) a diversification heuristic, used to extract sufficiently diverse classifiers; (ii) a voting mechanism, to combine the responses provided by the learned classifiers. If the classifiers are sufficiently diverse, i.e. they make uncorrelated errors, then the majority vote rule tends to the Bayesian error as the number of classifiers increases . Ensemble techniques have also been used to enhance the performance of classification systems in which decision trees are learned by means of Genetic Programming (GP). Examples of GP–based approaches using ensemble techniques can be found in , , ,  and . Moreover, in ,  and , ensembles of decision trees are evolved, and the diversity among the ensemble members is obtained by using bagging or boosting techniques. According to these approaches, an ensemble can be obtained by evolving each decision tree with reference to a different subset of the original data. Instead, in the bagging approach , different subsets (called bags), the same size as the original training set, are obtained by applying a random sampling with replacement. Then the ensemble is built by training each classifier on a different bag. Finally, the responses provided by these classifiers are combined by means of the majority vote rule: an unknown sample is assigned the class label that has the highest occurrence among those provided by the whole set of classifiers. While, in the boosting approach , the classifier ensemble is trained by means of a stepwise procedure. At each step, a new classifier is trained by choosing the training set samples from the original training set, according to a suitable probability distribution. This distribution is adaptively changed at each step in such a way that samples misclassified in the previous steps have a better chance of being chosen. Eventually, classifier responses are combined by the weighted majority vote rule, where the weight associated with a classifier takes into account its overall accuracy on the training data. In  a novel GP-based classification system, named Cellular GP for data Classification (CGPC), is presented. In the CGPC approach, individuals interact according to a cellular automata inspired model, whose goal is to enable a fine-grained parallel implementation of GP. In this model, each individual has a spatial location on a low-dimensional grid and interacts only with other individuals within a small neighborhood. In , an extension of CGPC, called BoostCGPC, is presented. It is based on two different ensemble techniques: the Breiman’s bagging algorithm  and the AdaBoost.M2 boosting algorithm . Despite the significant performance improvements classifier ensembles can provide, their major drawback is that, usually, it is necessary to combine a large number of classifiers in order to obtain a marked error reduction. This implies large memory requirements and slow classification speeds. In fact, these aspects can be critical in some applications  and , but this problem can be solved by selecting a fraction of the classifiers from the original ensemble. This reduction, often called “ensemble pruning” in the literature, has other potential benefits. In particular, an appropriate subset of complementary classifiers can perform better than the whole ensemble , , ,  and . When the cardinality L of the whole ensemble is high, the problem of finding the optimal subset of classifiers becomes computationally intractable because of the resulting exponential growth of the search space, made of all the 2L possible subsets. It is worth mentioning that several heuristic algorithms can be found in the literature for finding near optimal solutions. Examples of such heuristics are: Genetic algorithms (GAs)  and  and semidefinite programming . In order to be successful, any ensemble learning strategy should ensure that the classifiers making up the ensemble are suitably diverse, so as to avoid correlated errors . In fact, as the ensemble size increases, it could happen that a correct classification provided by some classifiers is overturned by the convergence of other classifiers on the same wrong decision. If the ensemble classifiers are not sufficiently diverse, this event is much more likely and can reduce the obtainable performance, regardless of any combination strategy. Classifier diversity for bagging and boosting are experimentally investigated in  and . The results have shown that these techniques do not ensure obtaining sufficiently diverse classifiers. As regards boosting, in  it is observed that whereas highly diverse classifiers are obtained at the first steps, as the boosting process proceeds, classifier diversity strongly decreases. More recently, AdaBoost has also been applied for generating more training subsets, used to learn an ensemble of Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) classifiers . This approach tries to overcome some of the drawbacks in traditional gradient-based learning algorithm, and can also alleviate instability and over-fitting problems of ELM. The diversity issue has been also considered in the unsupervised learning of ensembles of clusters . In a previous work , the classifier combination problem was reformulated as a pattern recognition one, in which the pattern is represented by the set of class labels provided by the classifiers when classifying a sample. Following this approach, a Bayesian network (BN)  was learned in order to estimate the conditional probability of each class, given the set of labels provided by the classifiers for each sample of a training set. Here, we have used Bayesian Networks because they provide a natural and compact way to encode joint probability distributions through graphical models, and allow probabilistic relationships among variables to be derived by using effective learning algorithms for both the graphical structure and its parameters. In particular, the joint probability among variables is modeled through the structure of a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG), whose nodes are the variables while the arcs are their statistical dependencies. In this way, the conditional probability of each class, given the set of responses provided by the classifiers, can be directly derived by the DAG structure applying the Bayes Rule. Thus, the combining rule is automatically provided by the learned BN. Moreover, this approach makes it possible to identify redundant classifiers, i.e. classifiers whose outputs do not influence the output of the combiner: the behavior of these classifiers is very similar to that of other classifiers in the ensemble. For this reason, they may be discarded without affecting the overall performance of the combiner, thus overcoming the main drawback of the combining methods discussed above. In  the learning of the BN is performed by means of an evolutionary algorithm using a direct encoding scheme of the BN structure (DAG). This encoding scheme is based on a specifically devised data structure, called Multilist, which allows an easy and effective implementation of the genetic operators. Indeed, the rationale behind the choice of an evolutionary approach is that of trying to solve one of the main drawbacks of standard learning algorithms, such as the k2 one, which adopt a greedy search strategy and thus are prone to be trapped in local optima. On the contrary, evolutionary algorithms allow us to effectively explore complex high dimensional search space. This paper presents a new classification system that merges the two aforementioned approaches. The goal is to build a high performance classification system, able to deal with large data sets but selecting only a reduced number of classifiers. For this purpose, we built a two-module system that combines the BoostCGPC algorithm , which produces a high performing ensemble of decision tree classifiers, with the BN-based approach to classifier combination . In particular, the BN module evaluates classifiers diversity by estimating the statistical dependencies of the responses they provide. This ability is used to select the minimum number of classifiers, among those provided by the BoostCGPC module, required to effectively classify the data at hand. Moreover, the responses provided by the selected classifiers are effectively combined by means of a rule inferred by the BN module. In this way the proposed system exploits the advantages provided by both techniques and allows us to greatly reduce the number of classifiers in the ensemble. Finally, as regards the evolutionary learning of the BN, the mutation operator has been reformulated in order to ensure that any permutation on the elements of the main list, leaves unchanged the connection topology of the multi-list. This property is very important to manage the trade-off between the exploration and the exploitation ability of the evolutionary algorithm. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, several experiments were performed. More specifically, seven data sets, of different sizes, number of attributes and classes were considered. Two kinds of comparison were performed: in the former the results of our approach were compared with those achieved by using different combination strategies; in the latter, our results were compared with those obtained by combining subsets of classifiers selected according to different selection strategies. Moreover, a diversity analysis of the selected classifiers was carried out taking into account two diversity measures. A genotypic one, which compares the structures of the related decision trees, and a phenotypic one that considers the responses provided by the classifiers to be combined. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 reviews some previous works done on ensemble pruning. Section 3 details the system architecture; in Section 4 several diversity measures, included those used in the experimental findings, are described; Section 5 illustrates the experimental results; finally Section 6 deals with discussion and some concluding remarks.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We presented a novel approach for improving the performance of derivation tree ensembles, learned by means of a boosted GP algorithm. Our basic idea is to combine the classifiers in the ensemble by using a BN to estimate the conditional probability of each class given the responses of these classifiers. This approach allows modeling explicitly the dependencies among the experts, trying to solve the problems derived by the error correlation that can occur even in boosting techniques. The learning of the Bayesian networks was performed by means of an evolutionary algorithm. The system also implements a pruning strategy by exploiting the Markov blanket property. This property allows the true class node state to be predicted only considering the nodes of its Markov blanket. The experimental results showed that the proposed system further improves the performance achieved by using the boosted GP algorithm, and uses only a small number of classifiers. The selection ability of our system has been investigated by performing further experiments, in which two different measures were used for evaluating the diversity of the selected experts. On the basis of these measures, we analyzed the pruned ensembles provided by the BN module in order to verify whether the performance of our system is correlated to the diversity of the classifiers included in these ensembles. The results showed that the BN module does not necessarily select the subset of classifiers that are more diverse among them in the original ensemble, but instead it tends to select the ensemble classifiers that make fewer errors and therefore are less diverse among them. We also compared our results with those obtained by using two effective and widely used pruning strategies. The results showed that our method outperforms (or is not significantly different from) the pruning strategies compared and always selects a significantly lower number of classifiers. Finally, the classifier selection ability of the proposed approach makes it suitable when both a high recognition rate and a low computational cost are required. In addition, while our algorithm maintains its effectiveness even when the original ensemble include a large number of classifiers, other selection strategies based on diversity analysis behave considerably worst in this case. Future work will focus on investigating two aspects. First, classifier selection procedure, based for example on a divergence measure or similar, will be applied before learning the BN, in order to verify whether better performance of the whole system can be achieved. Second, different scoring functions (e.g. MDL, AIC, BIC) will be tried with the aim of improving the selection ability and/or the accuracy of the proposed system.