دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 29330
عنوان فارسی مقاله

غاراتز(آسیاب آبی): دستگاه بومی برای توسعه پایدار تجدید پذیر انرژی از آب در آتراخاند هیمالیا

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
29330 2008 8 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
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عنوان انگلیسی
Gharats (watermills): Indigenous device for sustainable development of renewable hydro-energy in Uttrakhand Himalayas
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Renewable Energy, Volume 33, Issue 10, October 2008, Pages 2199–2206

کلمات کلیدی
- سیستم مبادله کالا به کالا
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله غاراتز(آسیاب آبی): دستگاه بومی برای توسعه پایدار تجدید پذیر انرژی از آب در آتراخاند هیمالیا

چکیده انگلیسی

The Himalaya has a rich ancient tradition for tapping hydro-energy from the hill streams and rivers through the device of gharats (watermills). The present contribution encompasses the study on the energy consumption pattern of hill communities living in buffer zone of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, a world heritage site located in Garhwal Himalayas, India, The current status of gharats, the factors responsible for the neglect of this renewable energy device, initiatives taken for upgrading for their revival have been highlighted. Field and policy level opportunities and constraints associated with promotion of such hydro-energy in the study area by upgrading of traditional watermills are analysed and suitable options for removing impediments are suggested.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Energy is one of the basic requirements to sustain life on Earth. Energy availability and its appropriate consumption play a vital role in the economic development of any nation. World energy demand has been increasing very rapidly with the increase in population. The conventional sources of energy resources are limited on Earth and excessive use of these resources is adversely affecting its environment. Rural communities in the Himalayan region have always relied on biomass energy for domestic uses, hydropower, animate energy and human muscle power for mechanical works such as milling grain, ploughing fields, and transporting goods. However, various studies [1] and [2] have shown that the present pattern of energy supply is not sustainable to meet the increasing energy requirements due to the rapid increase in the population and the growing aspiration of mountain communities for better living standards. The mountain people are acquainted with mountain specificities (e.g., inaccessibility, marginality, diversity, fragility) and through trials and errors over the generations have evolved several practices and measures to promote and enhance the range of survival and growth options [3]. Since ages, the Himalayan people have developed indigenous device in the form of watermills, locally known as gharats to harness renewable hydro-energy. There are believed to be about 2,00,000 gharats in Indian Himalayas, of which about 60,000 gharats alone has been estimated in Uttrakhand. Of these, 65% are in operation annually, 25% are run seasonally, and 10% are reported to be defunct [4]. However, in recent years, many of these were being abandoned by the gharats owners because of very low income and tough competition from more effective diesel powered mills in nearby towns [5]. The Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), which represents, the Trans-Himalayan region of the bio-geographic classification of India [6] possess an immense hydropower potential because of presence of number of rivers and streams criss-crossing its mountainous terrain. The sustainable harnessing of hydro-resources of the area can be ensured through upgrading and revival of gharats, a traditional device of renewable energy with community implementation and management. Development of renewable energy sources such as gharats can contribute to create jobs in small and medium sized community enterprises, brings socio-economic cohesion within the community and has positive implications for balance of trade, security of supply and protection of environment [7]. The present contribution is an attempt to analyse energy use pattern, use of traditional renewable hydropower in NDBR and to put-forth a strategy elements for upgrading of gharats in the buffer zone of NDBR, so that it could play a lead role in diversifying rural economies, and reducing existing environmental damages to the NDBR ecosystem

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

Energy has always been a basic need of the people to sustained livelihood. The people of the area have been dependent on biomass energy for domestic uses (cooking, home heating, lighting), and hydropower, animate energy, human muscle power for mechanical works (grinding, ploughing, post harvesting operations, etc.). The specific agroclimatic conditions of the area lead to the formation of a unique demand-supply pattern of energy use. The severe and prolonged winters here create a very high seasonal demand of heat energy for home-heating and cooking on the one hand. On the other hand, the quantity and quality of energy services required in the remote area is quite low due to the inaccessibility, scattered settlement pattern, and lack of infrastructural development and diversification of economic marginality. The dependency of village people on non-commercial energy sources such as fuel wood is very high while the share of commercial energy is very less in the total energy demand. The proportion of renewable energy sources such as biogas, SHS, and MHP has not taken place to a very large extent. In the area, the demand of fuelwood has been increasing rapidly with the increase in the population. Increase in degradation of forests cover, especially closer to settlements is not only as result of appropriate forest management practices, but also due to a lack of alternative sources of energy for cooking, home heating, and lighting. It is therefore, important to promote a mountain sensitive energy planning and implementation process to supply energy for growing population without a detrimental impact on ecology. The NDBR possess an immense hydropower potential because of presence of number of rivers and streams criss-crossing its mountainous terrain. Historically, the people of the area have been using hydropower energy from the perennial stream and rivulets through indigenous watermills (gharats) for grinding. The power output of traditional gharats can be increased up to 5 kW per gharat by a little extra technical input which can play an important role in terms of meeting domestic, commercial and industrial energy demand of the scattered villages. For sustainability and wide replicability of improved gharats, it is also important to strengthen the forward and backward linkages associated with traditional gharats.

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