بهتر یا بدتر؟ نقش سیستم های صفحات خورشیدی (PV) در توسعه پایدار: مطالعات موردی از جوامع مرجانی از راه دور در کشور کیریباتی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29338||2009||4 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Renewable Energy, Volume 34, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 358–361
The Republic of Kiribati, formerly known as the Gilbert Islands, is a Micronesian (One of the three groups of islands in the Pacific. The eight territories that make up Micronesia are Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Nauru, Republic of Palau, Territory of Guam and Territory of Wake Island. The other two groups of islands in the Pacific are Melanesia and Polynesia) country in the Pacific. The energy sources utilised in Kiribati include petroleum products, biomass, solar energy and wind power. Solar energy was introduced in Kiribati in the early 1980s (Wade H. Survey of RESCO projects – prepared for OPRET, Fiji Department of Energy, 2003; p. 36). Currently, it makes a very insignificant (less than 1%) contribution to the total annual primary energy supply (South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) – Pacific Regional Energy Assessment (PREA) 2004. Kiribati national report, Vol. 5, 2005). Solar energy in Kiribati is used mostly in the form of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies for the provision of lighting and electricity. This study examines the role of PV technologies in the sustainable development process in Kiribati, with particular reference to remote atoll communities. Initial results from on-site surveys carried out are reported in this paper. These surveys have sought to identify the reasons why people use or do not use PV systems.
The provision of energy services has often been justified on the basis that it results in economic and/or social development. In developed countries (or modern societies), the increase in per capita energy consumption has been regarded as a measure of economic development. In most developing countries (especially in rural and remote communities), lack of access to energy services is seen as an obstacle to development. Over the past two decades, many developing countries have attempted to sustain and improve their energy services through a number of approaches such as the introduction of modern forms of energy supplies, restructuring power utilities and educating communities about energy supply systems . In countries, with adequate solar radiation, PV technologies have been chosen as the best energy option for areas that are not covered by the centralised power grid. PV technologies were introduced in Kiribati in early 1980s  and . Over the last two decades, the number of PV systems in Kiribati has increased. The applications of PV technologies in Kiribati include: • lighting: indoor (in houses and community halls), outdoor and street lights. • pumping water in villages and schools; and • powering electrical devices: communication devices (phone, fax machine and citizen band (CB) radio), torch, fan, refrigerator and radio. This study attempts to examine the role of PV technologies in the process of sustainable development in Kiribati, with particular reference to rural and remote communities. The objectives of this work sought to address the following two questions: 1. In what ways have the PV systems already in place contributed to the development of the communities in the outer atolls of Kiribati? and 2. Have PV systems been a reliable and viable alternative in the remote atoll context (of Kiribati) within which it operates? The first part of the paper gives an overview of the assessment criteria used. The section that follows presents the case of SHSs on Abemama Atoll and its role in the sustainable development process of the rural and remote communities. Finally, conclusions from this initial analysis have been presented.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
SHSs are often portrayed as a reliable technology which is able to satisfy basic energy needs, easy to operate and maintain, and a means of promoting small-scale income generating activities. Such views have become so pervasive that they are hardly questioned. In the rural and remote communities in Kiribati, there were people with different attitudes towards the SHSs. The main need for SHSs was for lighting. One of the most important findings in this study was that SHSs could not be afforded by a lot of the households even when the costs were heavily subsidised. Affordability in many circumstances was at the expense of diverting income from other needs. In terms of technological capability, most of the users did not have any technical knowledge. The users should have limited knowledge to maintain the SHSs and a good support service should be provided. The prospects for income generating activities were not promising. SHSs have a very modest impact on income generating activities for ordinary villagers. It was mainly useful to shop owners for lighting at night. SHSs may be an inappropriate technology in such communities if the objective is to link it to income generating activities. It cannot be automatically assumed that SHSs are a universal strategy for improving livelihoods by increasing income generating activities. It provides basic lighting and electricity needs but may not be a viable option for enhancing household income in such communities. The results from the remaining indicators and for the rest of the PV technologies considered in this study will be presented in other publications arising from this work.